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base:a_new_kind_of_hard-restart

A new kind of hard-restart

By shrydar, with contributions from lft.

This article explains how to perform a stable hard-restart; i.e. it not only zeros the envelope and captures the envelope rate counter, but it sets RC to a known value.

Back in 2011 I wanted to get the SID envelope generator into a known state to the cycle level, so I could then take some measurements of envelope behaviour. At the time, the best routine I could manage took well over three frames, as I had to twice recapture a potential rate-counter escape. The first frame and a half was spent on an ordinary hard-restart (OHR), then following some limit manipulations to get the rate counter into one of a number of states that were all equal modulo nine, a second OHR waas required to fold the potential values back into a known state.

Then in early April 2015, lft had a cunning plan. The first step was still to perform an OHR, as per my original. His innovation was to use the 'safe' transition from a slow attack to a fast decay to perform the recapture; if this is all done up around env=$fe, it can be performed in just a couple of hundred cycles

The envelope overflow bug (where an attack triggered when env=$ff causes env to wrap back to $00) can then be used to bring the envelope back down.

The CPU intensive part of the process takes a mere ten raster lines.

The core implementation is included below; details of how the magic part works to follow in a future update.

;------------------------------------------------------------------------------
; stabiliseRC3                                                                ;
;                                                                             ;
;    place SID in a known state, with quiescent env3 and ADSR=0000            ;
;                                                                             ;
;    All DMA and interrupts must be disabled for the last 600 cycles          ;
;                                                                             ;
;------------------------------------------------------------------------------

	.align 256

stabiliseRC3:
	lda#$00
	sta v3AD
	sta v3CR
	lda#$f0
	sta v3SR

	ldy#25         ; wait >0x7fff cycles to recapture
	ldx#128
:	dex
	bne :-
	dey
	bpl :-

	lda#$01
	sta v3CR       ; start rise to $ff

	ldx#205        ; wait >256*9 cycles for rise to maximum
:	dex
	bne :-
:	dex
	bne :-
	               ; from this point on, timing is critical
	lda#$02
	ldx#$01
	ldy#$00
.repeat 7          ; here's where the magic happens.  Potential RC values are released
	sta   v3AD     ; one at a time into a 63 cycle bottle, at intervals multiples of
	jsr wait20     ; 9 cycles apart
	stx   v3AD
	nop
	nop
	sty   v3AD
.endrep
	sta   v3AD
	waitNy 18      ; wait 18 cycles (clobbers Y, as ncycles>7)

	lda#$44        ; rate 4, limit 149
	stx v3AD
	sta v3AD
	sta v3SR
	               ; rate counter should now be one of 9 different values that
	               ; are all equal modulo 9, in the range 0 to 99
	lda#$00
	sta v3CR       ; ADSR=$4444, env=$ff, switching to release

	waitNy 170     ; wait for env to drop to $fe
	ldx#$01        ; request attack
	stx v3CR       ; we've now a few cycles grace before env reaches ff in which to switch ADSR to $40f0 

	lda#$40
	sta v3AD
	lda#$f0
	sta v3SR
	waitNy 99      ; wait for the entire packet of potential values to be captured into the 9 cycle decay limit loop
	               ; now ADSR = 40f0, RC is synchronised, env=$ff 

	lda #$11       ; next we need to force overflow
	sta v3AD       ; by switching to decay, then back to attack before env drops below $ff
	lda#$f1        ; we do this at a rate of 1 (RC limit of 31) to give us time for register fiddling.
	sta v3SR
	ldx #0
	stx v3CR       ; drop into decay

	ldx #1
	stx v3CR       ; return to attack - this'll increase env to $00
	waitNy 5
	lda#$00        ; recapture to the fastest rate
	sta v3AD       ; this write must be performed while RC<9, or we'll trigger the bug again.
	sta v3SR
	sta v3CR       ; and drop back to release state
	rts

wait20:
	nop
	nop
	nop
	nop
	rts

Source for a full implementation and test harness may be found at hard_restart_bottle_0.1.tar.gz

base/a_new_kind_of_hard-restart.txt · Last modified: 2015-05-23 17:18 by shrydar