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base:freedirectional_scrolling_using_map_dumps [2015-04-17 04:32] (current)
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 +====== Freedirectional scrolling using map dumps ======
 +by Achim
 +Here's the traditional way of scrolling.
 +It can be found in classic games like Uridium, Paradroid,
 +Ghosts'​n Goblins etc.
 +The idea is to fully decode the map data and store it into RAM. 
 +In terms of memory usage this is not very efficient, of course. ​
 +But by defining an origin top/left of the decoded map data 
 +the actual screen data can be displayed
 +directly onto the screen. No RAM-shifitng routines needed.
 +Therefore the map data has to be stored
 +row by row. If one row is stored in one page, the map data
 +can be up to 256 chars wide (=6 screens wide + another 16chars). ​
 +For a wider map more pages have to be reserved.
 +1. row = $8000
 +2. row = $8100
 +3. row = $8200
 +The height of the map data is defined by the number of pages
 +reserved in memory. The more you reserve, the more rows
 +can be scrolled up and down.
 +Once the map data is stored this way, a display routine copies the actual screen data
 +into screen memory.
 +Here's an example for 16 screen rows:
 +Display routine
 +by A.Volkers, 2011
 +->Kick Assembler
 +.pc = $0400 "​screen memory"​ virtual
 +screen:​ .fill $100,0
 +.pc = $1500
 +.var map = $fe     //​16bit map pointer
 +display:​ ldx map+1 //​hi-byte of decoded map data
 + stx row1+2 ​     //self modifying code...
 + inx //​always add another inx
 + stx row2+2 //if two pages are reserved ​
 + inx //​for one row
 + stx row3+2
 + inx
 + stx row4+2
 + inx
 + stx row5+2
 + inx
 + stx row6+2
 + inx
 + stx row7+2
 + inx
 + stx row8+2
 + inx
 + stx row9+2
 + inx
 + stx row10+2
 + inx
 + stx row11+2
 + inx
 + stx row12+2
 + inx
 + stx row13+2
 + inx
 + stx row14+2
 + inx
 + stx row15+2
 + inx
 + stx row16+2
 + lda map //​lo-byte map data
 + sta row1+1
 + sta row2+1
 + sta row3+1
 + sta row4+1
 + sta row5+1
 + sta row6+1
 + sta row7+1
 + sta row8+1
 + sta row9+1
 + sta row10+1
 + sta row11+1
 + sta row12+1
 + sta row13+1
 + sta row14+1
 + sta row15+1
 + sta row16+1
 + ldx #$27
 +row1: lda $8000,​x ​      
 + sta screen,x
 +row2: lda $8100,x
 + sta screen+40,x
 +row3: lda $8200,x
 + sta screen+80,x
 +row4: lda $8300,x
 + sta screen+120,​x
 +row5: lda $8400,x
 + sta screen+160,​x
 +row6: lda $8500,x
 + sta screen+200,​x
 +row7: lda $8600,x
 + sta screen+240,​x
 +row8: lda $8700,x
 + sta screen+280,​x
 +row9: lda $8800,x
 + sta screen+320,​x
 +row10: lda $8900,x
 + sta screen+360,​x
 +row11: lda $8a00,x
 + sta screen+400,​x
 +row12: lda $8b00,x
 + sta screen+440,​x
 +row13: lda $8c00,x
 + sta screen+480,​x
 +row14: lda $8d00,x
 + sta screen+520,​x
 +row15: lda $8e00,x
 + sta screen+560,​x
 +row16: lda $8f00,x
 + sta screen+600,​x
 + dex
 + bpl row1
 + rts
 +The example code uses "​map"​ as a map pointer. For scrolling
 +this pointer has to be manipulated everytime the ScrollY-bits ($d011)
 +and the ScrollX-bits ($d016) wrap.
 +  * Scrolling down/moving up: dec map+1 (page hi-byte)
 +  * Scrolling up/moving down: inc map+1
 +  * Scrolling right/​moving left: dec map (page lo-byte)
 +  * Scrolling left/moving right: inc map
 +That's it. This way of scrolling has got it's limits. A lot of memory
 +has to be reserved for the map data. It's not very handy when colour RAM
 +shifting is needed.
 +But there'​re some benefits: Map data manipulations (like picking up objects etc.) 
 +are very easy to handle with fully decoded data. The code is rather small even
 +with two screen buffers.
 +It should be mentioned that many games using this technique tend to call their 
 +display routine every frame in order to display map data changes immediately. ​
 +Hence the number of scrolled screen rows is usually very limited to avoid
 +timing problems. Timing problems occur when more than 16 screen rows have to
 +be scrolled.
 +This example scrolls 16 rows freely. No colour shifting, no specific map data.
 +Display routine located at $1500: {{:​base:​|}}
base/freedirectional_scrolling_using_map_dumps.txt ยท Last modified: 2015-04-17 04:32 (external edit)