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magazines:chacking1 [2015-04-17 04:34] (current)
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 +====== C= Hacking #1 ======
  
 +<code>
 +  Sorry that this is later than I had hoped to get it out, but here it is --
 +Expect another one soon in a month or two depending on submissions... Praise,
 +Comments, (It sucks, I loved it, etc) are welcome ->
 +duck@pembvax1.pembroke.edu.  Many thanks to Craig Bruce for his article on line
 +drawing / dot plotting with the 80 column screen on the C=128.
 +
 +===============================================================================
 +Hacking / This Magazine
 +by Craig Taylor
 +duck@pembvax1.pembroke.edu
 +
 +Def:
 +  Hacker - Noun - A talented amateur user of computers.
 +  Source - Webster's New World Dictionary
 +
 +Correction:
 +  Hacker - Noun - A talented user of computers.
 +
 +
 +  There, now that we got that out of the way, let's see how some people
 +interpret the word hacker. In the 1980's newspapers, magazines, movies -
 +everywhere ya looked people were using the term "Hacker" to denote a person who
 +maliciously tried to destroy / bore ill intent towards another computer system.
 +This was the result of the misunderstanding of the actual definition of
 +"Hacker" (under my correction above).
 +
 +  This magazine will not tell people how to "phreak", how to hack voice
 +mailboxes and other illegal activities.  However, it will attempt to reveal
 +some of the "mystique" behind some of the new techniques and abilities found in
 +the Commodore 64 and Commodore 128 that are just now being revealed.
 +In the event that an article is submitted and there is a question about it's
 +ability to be applied towards illegal activites, the article will be carried
 +with a warning that the intent is not towards that activity.  Hopefully, these
 +will never come along. :-)
 +  The Commodore 64 came out in late 1982 (I believe) and was known to only
 +support 16 colors, 320 x 200 resolution graphics of 2 colors, 160x200
 +resolution graphics of 4 colors.  Since then people have pushed the Commodore
 +64 to its limits with apparent resolution of 320 x 200 with a resolution of 4
 +colors and even higher... more than 8 sprites on the screen... fast
 +high-quality digitized sounds....
 +  The Commodore 128 came out as an "upgrade" from the Commodore 64 and with
 +it's unique memory management scheme and the Z80a chip still on there people
 +are still finding out unique and interesting ways to explore the C=128. One of
 +the most interesting has been that of the seperate video display chip which
 +makes it possible to dispaly 640x200 resolution graphics quickly and easily.
 +
 +**ATTENTION**
 +  This magazine is going to be a sourcebook of many people - If you know
 +anything about something, please feel free to submit it.  Just mail the article
 +to the following :
 + duck@pembvax1.pembroke.edu
 + and a subject of "ARTICLE - " and then the article name.
 +
 +  The source code for all programs mentioned within articles will be provided
 +as well as any executables uuencoded sent out seprately. [Ed. Note - In this
 +issue, the source is not sent seperately due to only one article with files]
 +
 +  In addition, the magazine will go out when there are enough articles
 +collected.  Also, I'm currently in college - so - it will also be dependant on
 +few tests etc being around the release period.
 +
 +  In this issue:
 +
 +    Title                               Author(s)
 +------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +Hacking - Definition Of duck@pembvax1.pembroke.edu
 +Learning ML - Part 1    duck@pembvax1.pembroke.edu
 +6502 Known/Unknown Opcodes compilation of several
 +Dot Plotting & Bitmapping csbruce@ccnga.uwaterloo.ca
 +  the 8563 Screen.
 +
 +** All articles and files (C) 1992 by their respective authors.
 +=============================================================================
 +</code>
 +
 +====== Beginning ML - Part One ======
 +<code>
 +(C) 1992 by Craig Taylor
 +
 +  The best way to learn machine language is to actually code routines that you
 +don't think will work, hope that they work, and then figure out why they don't
 +work. (If they do work, you try to figure out why you didn't think they'd
 +work).  Ie: THE BEST WAY TO LEARN ANY PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE IS TO PROGRAM IN
 +THAT LANGUAGE.  And Machine Language is a programming language.
 +  Now, let's get a few terms and definitions out of the way:
 +
 +  Machine Language - Instructions that the computer understands at a primitive
 +     level and executes accordingly.
 +  Assembly Language - Instructions more understandable to humans than pure
 +     Machine Language that makes life easier.
 +
 +                      Assembly: Machine:
 + Example: lda #$00                  $A9 $00
 +
 +  Huh? you might be saying at the moment.  Turns out that LDA stands for, or is
 +a mnemonic (computer people always come up with these big long words -- you'll
 +see mnemonic's often when dealing with machine language) for the following:
 +    "LOAD register A with the following value"
 +      ^          ^
 +  Cool 'eh? Yeah, but there's somebody grumbling now about why not make it
 +LOADA etc.. Hey, that's life. (GRIN).
 +  
 +  Oh, more definitions:
 +
 +  Register - A location inside the CPU that can be manipulated directly without
 +     having to access memory.
 +
 +  The "A" register is often called the accumalator which indicates its
 +function: all math and logical manipulations are done to the "A" register (from
 +hereon out it will be referred to as .A).
 +  There are two other registers inside the 6502 processor, specifically .X and
 +.Y.  These registers help act as counters and indexes into memory (sorta like
 +mem[x] in pascal but not quite...).
 +
 +  Now, let's add 3 and 5 and leave the result in the accumalator (.A).
 +
 + lda #3 ; Here .A = 3 (anything w/ a ; is a
 +   ; comment and will be ignored by the assembler... 
 + clc ; hu? - This clears the carry. The 6502
 +  ; does addition *everytime* with the carry ... so if we clear it it won't
 +  ; affect the result.
 + adc #5 ; Now, .A = .A + 5
 +
 +  and we're done.  If the CLC confused you then consider that if you're adding
 +a column of #'s:
 +               
 +       12 <--\__The 2 + 9 = 11, but we put the 1 down and set the carry to 1.
 +    +  89 <---/ 
 +       --
 +      101
 +   Then we say 1 + 8 + carry , which in this case happens to = 1 and we get 10
 +and again we set the carry and write down 0. Then it's just the carry and we
 +write that down.  If we didn't clear the carry we may have ended up with the
 +value of 9 instead 8 if the carry had happened to be set.
 +  
 +  Aaagh, Math - Let's continue - The CLC mnemonic stands for "CLEAR CARRY" and
 +the ADC stands for "ADD with CARRY" On many processors there is a ADD
 +(without a carry) but unfortunately the 6502 processor inside the C=64 doesn't
 +have it.
 + So we've got:
 +    load reg A with the value 5      lda #5
 +    clear the carry clc
 +    add reg a and value 3 adc #3
 +
 + In Basic it's just: 
 +    A = 5+3 
 +
 +  One statement... In Machine Language you've got to break everything down into
 +smaller and smaller steps and quite often the ML listing will be far longer
 +than the BASIC or PASCAL or C equivlent.
 +
 + Definitions:
 +   Assembler - Program takes source code in basic form or from a file and
 +writes to memory or a file the resulting executable. Allows higher flexibility
 +than a monitor (see below) due to use of labels etc and not having to keep
 +track of each address within the program.
 +
 +  Monitor - A program, resident in memory, invoked by a sys call from basic or
 +by hitting the restore key that will let you disassemble, assemble and examine
 +areas of memory and execute programs directly from the monitor. Useful for
 +debugging programs and for writing short programs.
 +  
 +  Let's enter the following into a monitor (if you don't have one then contact
 +duck@pembvax1.pembroke.edu and I'll send ya one):
 +
 +128: c64:
 +>a 1300 lda #$93      >a c000 lda #$93
 +>a 1302 jsr $ffd2 >a c003 jsr $ffd2
 +>a 1305 rts >a c005 rts
 +(exit monitor) (exit monitor)
 +bank15:sys4864 sys 49152
 +
 +  Wow! It cleared the screen. Neat 'eh?  But see how much ya gotta break
 +problems down?  The first statement loads in $93 hex into the accumalator ($93
 +hex just happens to equal 147 which is also the Commodorscii code for clear
 +screen.  For a whole list just look in the back of the book that came with the
 +computer).  Then we jump to a system routine which Commodore so graciously
 +supplied us with that prints the value of the character in .A to the screen.
 +(jsr $ffd2) then we do a RTS (ReTurn from Subroutine) so that we will go back
 +to basic and the Ready prompt when we are finished with the sys call.
 +  You C= 128 people may be wondering why you had to do a bank 15 and assemble
 +the stuff at a different memory location.  Turns out that the C128 memory map
 +of where routines etc are at is much more complex than the C=64 and thus you
 +have to tell basic which bank you wish to have all sys, peek, and poke calls to
 +take place in. Also, $c000 as used on the C=64 is not an area that is free to
 +use on the C128 in this manner.
 +
 +  Assignment: Take a look @ the different commands as listed in 6502 Opcodes
 +and try to understand what they do. Experiment with the jsr $ffd2 routine by
 +using different values etc.
 +
 +  Next Time: Printing out strings, and understanding 'Indexing'.
 +
 +===========================================================================
 +</code>
 +
 +====== 6502 Opcodes and Quasi-Opcodes ======
 +<code>
 +
 +  The following table lists all of the available opcodes on the 65xx line of 
 +micro-processors (such as the 6510 on the C=64 and the 8502 on the C=128)
 +
 +-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 +Std Mnemonic Hex Value Description                Addressing Mode  Bytes/Time 
 +*   BRK      $00       Stack <- PC, PC <- ($fffe) (Immediate)      1/7
 +*   ORA      $01       A <- (A) V M               (Ind,X)          6/2
 +    JAM      $02       [locks up machine]         (Implied)        1/-
 +    SLO      $03       M <- (M >> 1) + A + C      (Ind,X)          2/8
 +    NOP      $04       [no operation]             (Z-Page)         2/3
 +*   ORA      $05       A <- (A) V M               (Z-Page)         2/3
 +*   ASL      $06       C <- A7, A <- (A) << 1     (Z-Page)         2/5
 +    SLO      $07       M <- (M >> 1) + A + C      (Z-Page)         2/5
 +*   PHP      $08       Stack <- (P)               (Implied)        1/3
 +*   ORA      $09       A <- (A) V M               (Immediate)      2/2
 +*   ASL      $0A       C <- A7, A <- (A) << 1     (Accumalator)    1/2
 +    ANC      $0B       A <- A /\ M, C=~A7         (Immediate)      1/2
 +    NOP      $0C       [no operation]             (Absolute)       3/4
 +*   ORA      $0D       A <- (A) V M               (Absolute)       3/4
 +*   ASL      $0E       C <- A7, A <- (A) << 1     (Absolute)       3/6
 +    SLO      $0F       M <- (M >> 1) + A + C      (Absolute)       3/6
 +*   BPL      $10       if N=0, PC = PC + offset   (Relative)       2/2'2
 +*   ORA      $11       A <- (A) V M               ((Ind),Y)        2/5'1
 +    JAM      $12       [locks up machine]         (Implied)        1/-
 +    SLO      $13       M <- (M >. 1) + A + C      ((Ind),Y)        2/8'5
 +    NOP      $14       [no operation]             (Z-Page,X)       2/4
 +*   ORA      $15       A <- (A) V M               (Z-Page,X)       2/4
 +*   ASL      $16       C <- A7, A <- (A) << 1     (Z-Page,X)       2/6
 +    SLO      $17       M <- (M >> 1) + A + C      (Z-Page,X)       2/6
 +*   CLC      $18       C <- 0                     (Implied)        1/2
 +*   ORA      $19       A <- (A) V M               (Absolute,Y)     3/4'1
 +    NOP      $1A       [no operation]             (Implied)        1/2
 +    SLO      $1B       M <- (M >> 1) + A + C      (Absolute,Y)     3/7
 +    NOP      $1C       [no operation]             (Absolute,X)     2/4'1
 +*   ORA      $1D       A <- (A) V M               (Absolute,X)     3/4'1
 +*   ASL      $1E       C <- A7, A <- (A) << 1     (Absolute,X)     3/7
 +    SLO      $1F       M <- (M >> 1) + A + C      (Absolute,X)     3/7
 +*   JSR      $20       Stack <- PC, PC <- Address (Absolute)       3/6
 +*   AND      $21       A <- (A) /\ M              (Ind,X)          2/6
 +    JAM      $22       [locks up machine]         (Implied)        1/-
 +    RLA      $23       M <- (M << 1) /\ (A)       (Ind,X)          2/8
 +*   BIT      $24       Z <- ~(A /\ M) N<-M7 V<-M6 (Z-Page)         2/
 +*   AND      $25       A <- (A) /\ M              (Z-Page)         2/3
 +*   ROL      $26       C <- A7 & A <- A << 1 + C  (Z-Page)         2/5
 +    RLA      $27       M <- (M << 1) /\ (A)       (Z-Page)         2/5'5
 +*   PLP      $28       A <- (Stack)               (Implied)        1/4
 +*   AND      $29       A <- (A) /\ M              (Immediate)      2/2
 +*   ROL      $2A       C <- A7 & A <- A << 1 + C  (Accumalator)    1/2
 +    ANC      $2B       A <- A /\ M, C <- ~A7      (Immediate9      1/2     
 +*   BIT      $2C       Z <- ~(A /\ M) N<-M7 V<-M6 (Absolute)       3/4
 +*   AND      $2D       A <- (A) /\ M              (Absolute)       3/4
 +*   ROL      $2E       C <- A7 & A <- A << 1 + C  (Absolute)       3/6
 +    RLA      $2F       M <- (M << 1) /\ (A)       (Absolute)       3/6'5
 +*   BMI      $30       if N=1, PC = PC + offset   (Relative)       2/2'2
 +*   AND      $31       A <- (A) /\ M              ((Ind),Y)        2/5'1
 +    JAM      $32       [locks up machine]         (Implied)        1/-
 +    RLA      $33       M <- (M << 1) /\ (A)       ((Ind),Y)        2/8'5
 +    NOP      $34       [no operation]             (Z-Page,X)       2/4
 +*   AND      $35       A <- (A) /\ M              (Z-Page,X)       2/4
 +*   ROL      $36       C <- A7 & A <- A << 1 + C  (Z-Page,X)       2/6
 +    RLA      $37       M <- (M << 1) /\ (A)       (Z-Page,X)       2/6'5
 +*   SEC      $38       C <- 1                     (Implied)        1/2
 +*   AND      $39       A <- (A) /\ M              (Absolute,Y)     3/4'1
 +    NOP      $3A       [no operation]             (Implied)        1/2
 +    RLA      $3B       M <- (M << 1) /\ (A)       (Absolute,Y)     3/7'5
 +    NOP      $3C       [no operation]             (Absolute,X)     3/4'1
 +*   AND      $3D       A <- (A) /\ M              (Absolute,X)     3/4'1
 +*   ROL      $3E       C <- A7 & A <- A << 1 + C  (Absolute,X)     3/7
 +    RLA      $3F       M <- (M << 1) /\ (A)       (Absolute,X)     3/7'5
 +*   RTI      $40       P <- (Stack), PC <-(Stack) (Implied)        1/6
 +*   EOR      $41       A <- (A) \-/ M             (Ind,X)          2/6
 +    JAM      $42       [locks up machine]         (Implied)        1/-
 +    SRE      $43       M <- (M >> 1) \-/ A        (Ind,X)          2/8  
 +    NOP      $44       [no operation]             (Z-Page)         2/3
 +*   EOR      $45       A <- (A) \-/ M             (Z-Page)         2/3
 +*   LSR      $46       C <- A0, A <- (A) >> 1     (Absolute,X)     3/7 ;According to AR Monitor and Grahams Table this should be LSR ZP instead of LSR $ffff,x
 +    SRE      $47       M <- (M >> 1) \-/ A        (Z-Page)         2/5
 +*   PHA      $48       Stack <- (A)               (Implied)        1/3
 +*   EOR      $49       A <- (A) \-/ M             (Immediate)      2/2
 +*   LSR      $4A       C <- A0, A <- (A) >> 1     (Accumalator)    1/2
 +    ASR      $4B       A <- [(A /\ M) >> 1]       (Immediate)      1/2
 +*   JMP      $4C       PC <- Address              (Absolute)       3/3
 +*   EOR      $4D       A <- (A) \-/ M             (Absolute)       3/4
 +*   LSR      $4E       C <- A0, A <- (A) >> 1     (Absolute)       3/6
 +    SRE      $4F       M <- (M >> 1) \-/ A        (Absolute)       3/6
 +*   BVC      $50       if V=0, PC = PC + offset   (Relative)       2/2'2
 +*   EOR      $51       A <- (A) \-/ M             ((Ind),Y)        2/5'1
 +    JAM      $52       [locks up machine]         (Implied)        1/-
 +    SRE      $53       M <- (M >> 1) \-/ A        ((Ind),Y)        2/8
 +    NOP      $54       [no operation]             (Z-Page,X)       2/4
 +*   EOR      $55       A <- (A) \-/ M             (Z-Page,X)       2/4
 +*   LSR      $56       C <- A0, A <- (A) >> 1     (Z-Page,X)       2/6
 +    SRE      $57       M <- (M >> 1) \-/ A        (Z-Page,X)       2/6
 +*   CLI      $58       I <- 0                     (Implied)        1/2
 +*   EOR      $59       A <- (A) \-/ M             (Absolute,Y)     3/4'1
 +    NOP      $5A       [no operation]             (Implied)        1/2 
 +    SRE      $5B       M <- (M >> 1) \-/ A        (Absolute,Y)     3/7
 +    NOP      $5C       [no operation]             (Absolute,X)     3/4'1
 +*   EOR      $5D       A <- (A) \-/ M             (Absolute,X)     3/4'1
 +    SRE      $5F       M <- (M >> 1) \-/ A        (Absolute,X)     3/7
 +*   RTS      $60       PC <- (Stack)              (Implied)        1/6
 +*   ADC      $61       A <- (A) + M + C           (Ind,X)          2/6
 +    JAM      $62       [locks up machine]         (Implied)        1/-
 +    RRA      $63       M <- (M >> 1) + (A) + C    (Ind,X)          2/8'5
 +    NOP      $64       [no operation]             (Z-Page)         2/3
 +*   ADC      $65       A <- (A) + M + C           (Z-Page)         2/3
 +*   ROR      $66       C<-A0 & A<- (A7=C + A>>1)  (Z-Page)         2/5
 +    RRA      $67       M <- (M >> 1) + (A) + C    (Z-Page)         2/5'5
 +*   PLA      $68       A <- (Stack)               (Implied)        1/4
 +*   ADC      $69       A <- (A) + M + C           (Immediate)      2/2
 +*   ROR      $6A       C<-A0 & A<- (A7=C + A>>1)  (Accumalator)    1/2
 +    ARR      $6B       A <- [(A /\ M) >> 1]       (Immediate)      1/2'5
 +*   JMP      $6C       PC <- Address              (Indirect)       3/5
 +*   ADC      $6D       A <- (A) + M + C           (Absolute)       3/4
 +*   ROR      $6E       C<-A0 & A<- (A7=C + A>>1)  (Absolute)       3/
 +    RRA      $6F       M <- (M >> 1) + (A) + C    (Absolute)       3/6'5
 +*   BVS      $70       if V=1, PC = PC + offset   (Relative)       2/2'2
 +*   ADC      $71       A <- (A) + M + C           ((Ind),Y)        2/5'1
 +    JAM      $72       [locks up machine]         (Implied)        1/-
 +    RRA      $73       M <- (M >> 1) + (A) + C    ((Ind),Y)        2/8'5
 +    NOP      $74       [no operation]             (Z-Page,X)       2/4
 +*   ADC      $75       A <- (A) + M + C           (Z-Page,X)       2/4
 +*   ROR      $76       C<-A0 & A<- (A7=C + A>>1)  (Z-Page,X)       2/6
 +    RRA      $77       M <- (M >> 1) + (A) + C    (Z-Page,X)       2/6'5
 +*   SEI      $78       I <- 1                     (Implied)        1/2
 +*   ADC      $79       A <- (A) + M + C           (Absolute,Y)     3/4'1
 +    NOP      $7A       [no operation]             (Implied)        1/2
 +    RRA      $7B       M <- (M >> 1) + (A) + C    (Absolute,Y)     3/7'5
 +    NOP      $7C       [no operation]             (Absolute,X)     3/4'1
 +*   ADC      $7D       A <- (A) + M + C           (Absolute,X)     3/4'1
 +*   ROR      $7E       C<-A0 & A<- (A7=C + A>>1)  (Absolute,X)     3/7
 +    RRA      $7F       M <- (M >> 1) + (A) + C    (Absolute,X)     3/7'
 +    NOP      $80       [no operation]             (Immediate)      2/2
 +*   STA      $81       M <- (A)                   (Ind,X)          2/6
 +    NOP      $82       [no operation]             (Immediate)      2/2
 +    SAX      $83       M <- (A) /\ (X)            (Ind,X)          2/6
 +*   STY      $84       M <- (Y)                   (Z-Page)         2/3
 +*   STA      $85       M <- (A)                   (Z-Page)         2/3
 +*   STX      $86       M <- (X)                   (Z-Page)         2/3
 +    SAX      $87       M <- (A) /\ (X)            (Z-Page)         2/
 +*   DEY      $88       Y <- (Y) - 1               (Implied)        1/2
 +    NOP      $89       [no operation]             (Immediate)      2/2
 +*   TXA      $8A       A <- (X)                   (Implied)        1/2
 +    ANE      $8B       M <-[(A)\/$EE] /\ (X)/\(M) (Immediate)      2/2^4
 +*   STY      $8C       M <- (Y)                   (Absolute)       3/4
 +*   STA      $8D       M <- (A)                   (Absolute)       3/4
 +*   STX      $8E       M <- (X)                   (Absolute)       3/
 +    SAX      $8F       M <- (A) /\ (X)            (Absolute)       3/4
 +*   BCC      $90       if C=0, PC = PC + offset   (Relative)       2/2'2
 +*   STA      $91       M <- (A)                   ((Ind),Y)        2/6
 +    JAM      $92       [locks up machine]         (Implied)        1/-
 +    SHA      $93       M <- (A) /\ (X) /\ (PCH+1) (Absolute,X)     3/6'3
 +*   STY      $94       M <- (Y)                   (Z-Page,X)       2/4
 +*   STA      $95       M <- (A)                   (Z-Page,X)       2/4
 +    SAX      $97       M <- (A) /\ (X)            (Z-Page,Y)       2/4
 +*   STX      $96       M <- (X)                   (Z-Page,Y)       2/4
 +*   TYA      $98       A <- (Y)                   (Implied)        1/2
 +*   STA      $99       M <- (A)                   (Absolute,Y)     3/5
 +*   TXS      $9A       S <- (X)                   (Implied)        1/2
 +    SHS      $9B       X <- (A) /\ (X), S <- (X)  (Absolute,Y)     3/5
 +                       M <- (X) /\ (PCH+1)      
 +    SHY      $9C       M <- (Y) /\ (PCH+1)        (Absolute,Y)     3/5'3
 +*   STA      $9D       M <- (A)                   (Absolute,X)     3/5
 +    SHX      $9E       M <- (X) /\ (PCH+1)        (Absolute,X)     3/5'3
 +    SHA      $9F       M <- (A) /\ (X) /\ (PCH+1) (Absolute,Y)     3/5'3
 +*   LDY      $A0       Y <- M                     (Immediate)      2/2
 +*   LDA      $A1       A <- M                     (Ind,X)          2/6
 +*   LDX      $A2       X <- M                     (Immediate)      2/2
 +    LAX      $A3       A <- M, X <- M             (Ind,X)          2/6
 +*   LDY      $A4       Y <- M                     (Z-Page)         2/3
 +*   LDA      $A5       A <- M                     (Z-Page)         2/3
 +*   LDX      $A6       X <- M                     (Z-Page)         2/3
 +    LAX      $A7       A <- M, X <- M             (Z-Page)         2/3
 +*   TAY      $A8       Y <- (A)                   (Implied)        1/2
 +*   LDA      $A9       A <- M                     (Immediate)      2/2
 +*   TAX      $AA       X <- (A)                   (Implied)        1/2
 +    LXA      $AB       X04 <- (X04) /\ M04        (Immediate)      1/2
 +                       A04 <- (A04) /\ M04
 +*   LDY      $AC       Y <- M                     (Absolute)       3/4
 +*   LDA      $AD       A <- M                     (Absolute)       3/4
 +*   LDX      $AE       X <- M                     (Absolute)       3/4
 +    LAX      $AF       A <- M, X <- M             (Absolute)       3/4
 +*   BCS      $B0       if C=1, PC = PC + offset   (Relative)       2/2'2
 +*   LDA      $B1       A <- M                     ((Ind),Y)        2/5'1
 +    JAM      $B2       [locks up machine]         (Implied)        1/-
 +    LAX      $B3       A <- M, X <- M             ((Ind),Y)        2/5'1
 +*   LDY      $B4       Y <- M                     (Z-Page,X)       2/4
 +*   LDA      $B5       A <- M                     (Z-Page,X)       2/4
 +*   LDX      $B6       X <- M                     (Z-Page,Y)       2/4
 +    LAX      $B7       A <- M, X <- M             (Z-Page,Y)       2/4
 +*   CLV      $B8       V <- 0                     (Implied)        1/2
 +*   LDA      $B9       A <- M                     (Absolute,Y)     3/4'1
 +*   TSX      $BA       X <- (S)                   (Implied)        1/2
 +    LAE      $BB       X,S,A <- (S /\ M)          (Absolute,Y)     3/4'1
 +*   LDY      $BC       Y <- M                     (Absolute,X)     3/4'1
 +*   LDA      $BD       A <- M                     (Absolute,X)     3/4'1
 +*   LDX      $BE       X <- M                     (Absolute,Y)     3/4'1
 +    LAX      $BF       A <- M, X <- M             (Absolute,Y)     3/4'1
 +*   CPY      $C0       (Y - M) -> NZC             (Immediate)      2/2
 +*   CMP      $C1       (A - M) -> NZC             (Ind,X)          2/6
 +    NOP      $C2       [no operation]             (Immediate)      2/2
 +    DCP      $C3       M <- (M)-1, (A-M) -> NZC   (Ind,X)          2/8
 +*   CPY      $C4       (Y - M) -> NZC             (Z-Page)         2/3
 +*   CMP      $C5       (A - M) -> NZC             (Z-Page)         2/3
 +*   DEC      $C6       M <- (M) - 1               (Z-Page)         2/5
 +    DCP      $C7       M <- (M)-1, (A-M) -> NZC   (Z-Page)         2/5
 +*   INY      $C8       Y <- (Y) + 1               (Implied)        1/2
 +*   CMP      $C9       (A - M) -> NZC             (Immediate)      2/2
 +*   DEX      $CA       X <- (X) - 1               (Implied)        1/2
 +    SBX      $CB       X <- (X)/\(A) - M          (Immediate)      2/2
 +*   CPY      $CC       (Y - M) -> NZC             (Absolute)       3/4
 +*   CMP      $CD       (A - M) -> NZC             (Absolute)       3/4
 +*   DEC      $CE       M <- (M) - 1               (Absolute)       3/6
 +    DCP      $CF       M <- (M)-1, (A-M) -> NZC   (Absolute)       3/6
 +*   BNE      $D0       if Z=0, PC = PC + offset   (Relative)       2/2'2
 +*   CMP      $D1       (A - M) -> NZC             ((Ind),Y)        2/5'1
 +    JAM      $D2       [locks up machine]         (Implied)        1/-
 +    DCP      $D3       M <- (M)-1, (A-M) -> NZC   ((Ind),Y)        2/8
 +    NOP      $D4       [no operation]             (Z-Page,X)       2/4
 +*   CMP      $D5       (A - M) -> NZC             (Z-Page,X)       2/4
 +*   DEC      $D6       M <- (M) - 1               (Z-Page,X)       2/6
 +    DCP      $D7       M <- (M)-1, (A-M) -> NZC   (Z-Page,X)       2/6
 +*   CLD      $D8       D <- 0                     (Implied)        1/2
 +*   CMP      $D9       (A - M) -> NZC             (Absolute,Y)     3/4'1
 +    NOP      $DA       [no operation]             (Implied)        1/2 
 +    DCP      $DB       M <- (M)-1, (A-M) -> NZC   (Absolute,Y)     3/7
 +    NOP      $DC       [no operation]             (Absolute,X)     3/4'1
 +*   CMP      $DD       (A - M) -> NZC             (Absolute,X)     3/4'1
 +*   DEC      $DE       M <- (M) - 1               (Absolute,X)     3/7
 +    DCP      $DF       M <- (M)-1, (A-M) -> NZC   (Absolute,X)     3/7
 +*   CPX      $E0       (X - M) -> NZC             (Immediate)      2/2
 +*   SBC      $E1       A <- (A) - M - ~C          (Ind,X)          2/6
 +    NOP      $E2       [no operation]             (Immediate)      2/2
 +    ISB      $E3       M <- (M) - 1,A <- (A)-M-~C (Ind,X)          3/8'1
 +*   CPX      $E4       (X - M) -> NZC             (Z-Page)         2/3
 +*   SBC      $E5       A <- (A) - M - ~C          (Z-Page)         2/3
 +*   INC      $E6       M <- (M) + 1               (Z-Page)         2/5
 +    ISB      $E7       M <- (M) - 1,A <- (A)-M-~C (Z-Page)         2/5  
 +*   INX      $E8       X <- (X) +1                (Implied)        1/2
 +*   SBC      $E9       A <- (A) - M - ~C          (Immediate)      2/2
 +*   NOP      $EA       [no operation]             (Implied)        1/2
 +    SBC      $EB       A <- (A) - M - ~C          (Immediate)      1/2
 +*   SBC      $ED       A <- (A) - M - ~C          (Absolute)       3/4
 +*   CPX      $EC       (X - M) -> NZC             (Absolute)       3/4
 +*   INC      $EE       M <- (M) + 1               (Absolute)       3/6
 +    ISB      $EF       M <- (M) - 1,A <- (A)-M-~C (Absolute)       3/6
 +*   BEQ      $F0       if Z=1, PC = PC + offset   (Relative)       2/2'2
 +*   SBC      $F1       A <- (A) - M - ~C          ((Ind),Y)        2/5'1
 +    JAM      $F2       [locks up machine]         (Implied)        1/-
 +    ISB      $F3       M <- (M) - 1,A <- (A)-M-~C ((Ind),Y)        2/8
 +    NOP      $F4       [no operation]             (Z-Page,X)       2/4
 +*   SBC      $F5       A <- (A) - M - ~C          (Z-Page,X)       2/4
 +*   INC      $F6       M <- (M) + 1               (Z-Page,X)       2/6
 +    ISB      $F7       M <- (M) - 1,A <- (A)-M-~C (Z-Page,X)       2/6
 +*   SED      $F8       D <- 1                     (Implied)        1/2
 +*   SBC      $F9       A <- (A) - M - ~C          (Absolute,Y)     3/4'1
 +    NOP      $FA       [no operation]             (Implied)        1/2
 +    ISB      $FB       M <- (M) - 1,A <- (A)-M-~C (Absolute,Y)     3/7
 +    NOP      $FC       [no operation]             (Absolute,X)     3/4'1
 +*   SBC      $FD       A <- (A) - M - ~C          (Absolute,X)     3/4'1
 +*   INC      $FE       M <- (M) + 1               (Absolute,X)     3/7
 +    ISB      $FF       M <- (M) - 1,A <- (A)-M-~C (Absolute,X)     3/7
 +
 +'1 - Add one if address crosses a page boundry.
 +'2 - Add 1 if branch succeeds, or 2 if into another page.
 +'3 - If page boundry crossed then PCH+1 is just PCH
 +'4 - Sources disputed on exact operation, or sometimes does not work.
 +'5 - Full eight bit rotation (with carry)
 +
 +Sources:
 +  Programming the 6502, Rodney Zaks, (c) 1983 Sybex
 +  Paul Ojala, Post to Comp.Sys.Cbm (po87553@cs.tut.fi / albert@cc.tut.fi)
 +  D John Mckenna, Post to Comp.Sys.Cbm (gudjm@uniwa.uwa.oz.au)
 +
 +Compiled by Craig Taylor (duck@pembvax1.pembroke.edu)
 +
 +</code>
 +====== Simple Hires Line Drawing Package for the C-128 80-Column Screen ======
 +<code>
 +Copyright (c) 1992 Craig Bruce <csbruce@ccnga.uwaterloo.ca>
 +
 +1. GRAPHICS PACKAGE OVERVIEW
 +
 +The graphics package this article explains is BLOADed into memory at address
 +$1300 on bank 15 and has three entry points:
 +
 +$1300 = move the pixel cursor or draw a line: .AX=x, .Y=y, .C=cmd
 +$1303 = activate graphics mode and clear the screen
 +$1306 = exit graphics mode and reload the character set
 +
 +To move the pixel cursor to the start point of a line, load the .AX registers
 +with the X coordinate (0-639), load the .Y register with the Y coordinate
 +(0-199), clear the carry flag, and call $1300.  (Make sure that Bank 15 is in
 +context).  This can be done in BASIC as follows:
 +
 +SYS 4864, X AND 255, X/256, Y, 0
 +
 +To draw a line from the pixel cursor location to a given point, load the .AX
 +and .Y registers like before, set the carry flag, and call $1300.  The pixel
 +cursor will then be set to the end point of the line just drawn, so you do not
 +have to set it again if you are drawing a continuous object (like a square).
 +
 +SYS 4864, X AND 255, X/256, Y, 1
 +
 +The activate and exit routines are called without any parameters and work very
 +simply.  You should be sure to call exit before returning to the program
 +editing mode or you will not be able to see what you are typing.
 +
 +A BASIC demonstration program is also included in the UU section for this
 +package.  It starts by putting the pixel cursor at the center of the screen
 +and then picks a random point to draw to, and repeats until you press a key
 +to stop it.  For an interesting effect, put a call to $1303 immediately before
 +the call to draw the line.
 +
 +The point plotting speed is about 4,100 pixels per second and the line drawing
 +speed is a bit slower than this because of all of the calculations that have
 +to be done to draw a line.  There are faster pixel plotting and line drawing
 +algorithms than the ones implemented here, but that is material for a future
 +article.
 +
 +2. INTRODUCTION TO THE VDC
 +
 +Programming the 8563 Video Display Controller is quite straight forward.  You
 +access it a bit indirectly, but it can still be done at relatively high speeds
 +using machine language.  The VDC contains 37 control registers and from 16K to
 +64K of dedicated display memory that is separate from the main processor.  The
 +memory must be accessed through the VDC registers.
 +
 +The important VDC registers for this exercise are:
 +
 +REG   BITS   DESC
 +---   ----   ----
 +$12   7-0    VDC RAM address high byte
 +$13   7-0    VDC RAM address low byte
 +$18        Block copy / block fill mode select
 +$19        Bitmap / Character mode select
 +$19        Color / Monochrome mode select
 +$1a   7-4    Foreground color
 +$1a   3-0    Background color
 +$1e   7-0    Copy / fill repetition count
 +$1f   7-0    VDC RAM data read / write
 +
 +You access the VDC chip registers though addresses $D600 and $D601 on bank 15.
 +Location $D600 selects the VDC register to use on write and returns the VDC
 +status on read.  The only important status information is bit 7 (value $80)
 +which is the "ready" flag.  The following two subroutines read or write the
 +value in .A to VDC register number .X:
 +
 +VdcRead:  stx $d600                  VdcWrite: stx $d600
 +WaitLoop: bit $d600                  WaitLoop: bit $d600
 +          bpl WaitLoop                         bpl WaitLoop
 +          lda $d601                            sta $d601
 +          rts                                  rts
 +
 +Once the current VDC register is selected at $d600, it remains selected.  You
 +may read or write it though $d601 as many times as you like as long as you
 +wait for the VDC to be "ready" between accesses.
 +
 +In order to access the VDC RAM, you must first put the high and low bytes of
 +the VDC RAM address into registers $12 and $13 (high byte first) and then
 +read or write through register $1f to read or write the data in the VDC RAM.
 +After each access to register $1f, the VDC RAM address is incremented by one.
 +So, if you repeatedly read or write to register $1f you can read or write a
 +chunk of VDC memory very quickly.
 +
 +3. ENTERING GRAPHICS MODE
 +
 +Activating the graphics mode of the VDC is very simple - you just have to set
 +bit 7 of VDC register $19 and poof!  You should also clear bit 6 of that
 +register to disable the character color mode.  This graphics package supports
 +only monochrome graphics since the standard 16K VDC does not have enough space
 +to hold both the bitmap and the 8*8 pixel cell attributes.  The 640*200 pixel
 +display takes 128,000 bits or 16,000 bytes.  This leaves 384 bytes of VDC RAM
 +that is not needed by the bitmap but it is not large enough to do anything
 +with, so it is wasted.
 +
 +When you disable the character color mode, the VDC takes its foreground and
 +background color values from register $1a.  The foreground color is what color
 +the "1" bits in the bitmap will be displayed in and the background color, the
 +"0" bits.
 +
 +Now that the bitmap mode is set up, we must clear the VDC memory locations 0
 +to 15999 (decimal) to clear the bitmap screen.  This can be done very quickly
 +using the VDC fill mode.  If you poke a value into VDC register number $1e,
 +the VDC will fill its memory from the location currently in the VDC RAM
 +address registers for the number of bytes you just poked into register $1e
 +with the value that you last poked into the VDC RAM data register.  (This is
 +assuming that "fill" mode is selected in register $18).  If you poke a 0 into
 +the repeat register it means to fill 256 bytes.
 +
 +So, to clear the bitmap, poke a zero into both of the VDC RAM address
 +registers since the bitmap starts at location 0.  Then poke a value of 0 into
 +VDC RAM data register.  This sets the fill value to 0 and pokes the first VDC
 +RAM location.  Then, go into a loop and put a zero into the VDC repeat
 +register 63 times.  This will fill 63 contiguous chunks of 256 bytes each.
 +We end up filling 16,129 bytes, but that is not a problem since we have 384
 +"safety" bytes at the end of the bitmap.  Internally, the VDC will fill its
 +memory at a rate of about 1 Megabyte per second (if I remember my test results
 +correctly), so clearing the screen is a PDFQ operation.
 +
 +4. EXITING GRAPHICS MODE
 +
 +To exit from graphics mode we have to reload the character set from the ROM
 +on bank 14 and we have to go back into character mode and clear the text
 +screen.  The kernel provides its own character reload routine so I used that.
 +The only problem with it is that it is a lot slower than it has to be.  It
 +takes about 0.45 seconds whereas the same job can be done in about 0.09
 +seconds.  The kernel is so slow because it uses the kernel INDFETCH nonsense.
 +
 +Then you just set the bitmap mode bit to zero and the character color mode to
 +one.  This gets you back to normal character mode.  You also have to clear the
 +text screen since it will be filled with garbage from the graphing.
 +
 +5. POINT PLOTTING
 +
 +The pixels on the screen accessed by their X and Y coordinates, 0 <= X <= 639,
 +0 <= Y <= 199.  The formula to calculate the byte address in the VDC RAM given
 +the X and Y coordinates is made simple by the mapping of bytes to the pixels
 +on the screen.  The bytes of VDC memory go across the screen rather than in
 +8*8 cells like the VIC screen.  Each pixel row is defined by 80 consecutive
 +bytes of VDC RAM.
 +
 +The formula for the byte address of a pixel is: AD=Y*80+INT(X/8), and the
 +formula for the bit number is simply BI=X AND 7.  The bit number can be used
 +as an index into a table of bit values: [$80,$40,$20,$10,$08,$04,$02,$01],
 +such that index 0 contains $80, since the highest bit is the leftmost bit.
 +
 +Calculating the bit number and looking up the bit value is very easy to do in
 +machine language, but the byte address calculation requires a little more
 +work.  First we have to multiply the Y value by 80, using a 16-bit word for
 +storage.  This is done by shifting the Y value left twice, adding the original
 +Y value, and shifting left four more times.  Then we have to shift the X value
 +right by three using a 16-bit word for storage to get INT(X/8), and we add the
 +two results together and we have the byte address.
 +
 +To plot the point, we have to peek into the VDC RAM at the byte address to see
 +what is "behind" the pixel we want to plot.  Then OR the new bit value on to
 +the "background" value and poke the result back into VDC RAM at the byte
 +address.  Unfortunately, since the VDC RAM address register auto-increments
 +after each reference, we will have to set it twice - once for the read and
 +once for the write.  That means that the VDC registers have to be accessed six
 +times for each pixel.  Fortunately, the VDC operates at its highest speed in
 +monochrome bitmap mode (it has less work to do than in color character mode,
 +so it is able to pay more attention to the CPU).
 +
 +Effects other than just plotting the point can be achieved by using functions
 +other than OR to put the point on the background.  EOR would "flip" the pixel,
 +and AND-NOT (achieved by LDA bitval : EOR #$ff : AND background) would erase
 +the pixel.
 +
 +6. LINE DRAWING
 +
 +The line drawing routine that is implemented in the package is given by the
 +following BASIC code (in fact, I programmed it in BASIC first to get it
 +working; of course, the BASIC version is as slow as hell):
 +
 +10 dx=x-lx:dy=y-ly
 +20 if abs(dx)>abs(dy) then begin r=dx:gy=dy/abs(dx):gx=sgn(dx)
 +30 bend:else r=dy:gx=dx/abs(dy):gy=sgn(dy)
 +40 px=lx+0.5:py=ly+0.5
 +50 fori=1to abs(r): <PLOT PX,PY> :px=px+gx:py=py+gy:next
 +60 lx=x:ly=y
 +
 +This implements the Basic Incremental Algorithm for raster line drawing.  The
 +"lx" and "ly" are the position of the pixel cursor and "x" and "y" are the
 +coordinates to draw the line to.  The "dx" and "dy" are the differences in the
 +X and Y directions.  The idea is that we will increment the pixel cursor by
 +a constant of 1 in one direction and by a fraction 0.0 <= g <= 1.0 in the
 +other direction.  This fraction is actually the slope of the line.
 +
 +Lines 20 and 30 figure out the increments for the X and Y directions ("gx" and
 +"gy").  These are signed fractional numbers on the range -1.0 <= g <= 1.0.
 +We check the "dx" and "dy" to see which has the greatest absolute value and
 +that will be the direction that is incremented by 1, 0, or -1 and the other
 +direction will increment by the (fractional) slope of the line with respect to
 +the other direction.
 +
 +Line 40 starts the plotting at the current pixel cursor location PLUS 0.5.  We
 +add 1/2 to the X and Y positions to "center" onto the pixel cell.  If we
 +didn't do this, we would notice dis-symmetry in plotting to the left and to
 +the right.  For example, 50.0 - 0.3 = 49.7 and 50.0 + 0.3 = 50.3.  If we
 +truncate these values, going left by 0.3 moves us to position 49 whereas going
 +right by 0.3 makes us stay in the same position.  This is dis-symmetry and
 +makes plots look a bit off.  Adding 0.5 corrects the problem.
 +
 +Line 50 goes into a loop for the longest dimension of the line (the one
 +incremented by 1).  The <PLOT PX,PY> is not exactly BASIC; you substitute
 +the call to the point plot routine described in the previous section.  It
 +repeatedly adds the X and Y increment values until the line is finished.
 +This algorithm draws the line in the direction that your end points imply.
 +
 +6.1. FRACTIONAL NUMBER REPRESENTATION
 +
 +There are only two real complications to the machine language implementation
 +are the representation of the signed fractional numbers and the division of
 +the fractional numbers.  To represent the numbers I use a 32-bit format with
 +a 16-bit signed integer portion (-32768 to +32767) and a 16-bit fractional
 +portion (0.0 to 0.99998474 in 0.00001526 increments).  The weight values of
 +the bit positions are as follows:
 +
 +POS     31... 22 21 20 19 18 17 16  15  14  13  12    11   10     9 ...      0
 +VAL -32768... 64 32 16  8  4  2  1 1/2 1/4 1/8 1/16 1/32 1/64 1/128 ...1/65536
 +
 +For example, 0...00001011101.10011010000...0 (notice the BINARY point) is
 +64 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 1 + 1/2 + 1/16 + 1/32 + 1/128 = 93.6015625 in decimal.  Or,
 +as a short cut, you can consider the integer 16 bits and the fractional 16
 +bits as independent words and add 1/65536th of the second to the first.  Thus,
 +for the example above, the quantity is 93 + (32768+4096+2048+512)/65536 =
 +93.6015625.  (Good, they both match).  The first calculation uses true base 2
 +whereas the second calculation uses base 65536.
 +
 +Two's complement representation is used to achieve signedness (,Park!).  We
 +should all know about two's comp.  Well, it works just fine for fractional
 +binary numbers as well.  In fact, it makes no difference at all.  You can just
 +think of the quantity as an integer number of 65536ths of a pixel and you get
 +the integer operations of complement, add, and subtract for free.  The easy
 +way to get the two's comp. representation of a number is to take the positive
 +binary image of the number and subtract it from 0 (this makes perfect sense
 +since 0 - x = -x).
 +
 +Fractional binary division is a little more complicated.  There is no problem
 +with the binary point, since the laws of mathematics say we can multiply the
 +top and bottom by the same quantity (like 65536) without changing the result,
 +but handling the two's complement is a problem.  What I did was figure out
 +what the sign of the result of the division was going to be (by EORing the
 +sign bits together) and then converted the two operands to their positive
 +value if they were originally negative.  This lets me perform a 32-bit
 +unsigned division operation and then I convert the result to a negative if the
 +result is supposed to be negative.  The 32-bit divide is not all that
 +complicated; it is done the same way that you would do it on paper (remember
 +those days) except you use binary digits.  The divide subroutine does not
 +exactly rival supercomputer speeds, but it does get the job done.
 +
 +6.2. MACHINE LANGUAGE OPERATION
 +
 +While drawing the line, the X and Y coordinates are 32-bit signed fractional
 +numbers as well as the "gx" and "gy" vector components ("go" values).  Lines
 +20 and 30 require quite a bit of work in 6502 machine language and use the
 +32-bit add, subtract, 2's complement, and divide operations described in the
 +previous section.  To find the ABSolute value of a number, check to see
 +whether it is positive or negative.  If it is positive, you are done.  If it
 +is negative, just do a 2's complement on it (makes sense: 0 - (-x) = x).
 +
 +Line 40 is done by simply taking the pixel cursor X and Y coordinates (which
 +are stored as unsigned integers and are remembered between line draw calls)
 +and put them into the high word of a 32-bit field and then put $8000 (32768)
 +into the low word (which gives V + 1/2 (or V + 32768/65536)).
 +
 +Line 50 is easily implemented as a loop that decrements the "r" word until it
 +reaches zero, while calling the point plot routine and doing the 32-bit add to
 +add the "g" values to the X and Y coordinates.  When the line is finished, the
 +final X and Y coordinates are put back into the pixel cursor position storage
 +and the package is ready for the next call.
 +
 +7. CONCLUSION
 +
 +Ha!  This ain't no formal paper so I don't have to write a conclusion.
 +So there! [Ed.Note - He is currently working on his Masters thesis, so you'll
 +have to pardon 'im here.. (grin) ]
 +
 +================================================================================
 +begin 640 hires80.bin
 +M`!-,`15,$1-,2!-,$!-,$!.S8*D`C0#_J>"B&B#,S:F'HAD@S,VI`*(2(,S-
 +MZ"#,S:D`(,K-J2"B&"#,S:D`HAZ@/R#,S8C0^F`@#,ZIDR#2_Z(9J4=,S,V$
 +M^H7\F*``A/L*)OL*)OL89?J0`N;["B;["B;["B;["B;[A?JE_(;]1OUJ1OUJ
 +M1OUJ&&7ZA?JE_67[A?NE_"D'JKV>$X7\8(!`(!`(!`(!```@5Q.E^Z(2(,S-
 +MI?KH(,S-(-C-!?RHI?NB$B#,S:7ZZ"#,S9A,RLVI`(5DA66%9H5GA5*%4X54
 +MHB`&8"9A)F(F8R92)E,F5*54T`JE4L50I5/E49`1.*52Y5"%4J53Y5&%4[`"
 +MQE0F9"9E)F8F9\K0R&"$4*90$!`XA5"I`.502(10J0#E4*AH8$BI`(5@A6$@
 +MSQ-H$!DXJ0#E9(5DJ0#E985EJ0#E9H5FJ0#E9X5G8*4,I`T@&A2%^H3[I1"D
 +M$2`:%(7\A/VE_,7ZI?WE^[!$I?J%$H50I?N%$X51I?R%8J7]A6.E$2`Q%*(#
 +MM625#LH0^:4-,`JI`(4-J0&%#-`&J?^%#84,.*D`Y1*%$JD`Y1.%$V"E_(42
 +MA5"E_843A5&E^H5BI?N%8Z4-(#$4H@.U9)4*RA#Y3.H4+/__+/__+/__I1$P
 +M"JD`A1&I`840T`:I_X41A1!,KA2P!X6+AHR$C6"%!(8%A`BB!ZD`E0K*$/LX
 +MI03EBX4,I07EC(4-.*4(Y8V%$*D`L`*I_X41(%@4I8N%!*6,A06I@(4#A0>I
 +M`(4"A0:EC84(J0"%":4$I@6D"""H$Z42!1/P.QBE`F4*A0*E`V4+A0.E!&4,
 +MA02E!64-A048I09E#H4&I0=E#X4'I0AE$(4(I0EE$84)YA+0N^833%05I02F
 +&!:0(3`,5
 +`
 +end
 +================================================================================
 +begin 640 hires.demo
 +M`1PQ'&0`BR#"*-$H(C$S,$8B*2D@L[$@T2@B0C,B*2"G(/X1(DA)4D53.#`N
 +M0DE.(@!!'&X`GB#1*"(Q,S`S(BD`4AQX`$12LM$H(C$S,#`B*0!S'((`GB!$
 +M4BPS,C`@KR`R-34L,S(PK3(U-BPQ,#`L,`"%'(P`6+*U*+LH,2FL-C0P*0"7
 +M')8`6;*U*+LH,2FL,C`P*0"R'*``GB!$4BQ8(*\@,C4U+%BM,C4V+%DL,0"[
 +L'*H`H2!!)`#-'+0`BR!!)+(B(B"G(#$T,`#='+X`GB#1*"(Q,S`V(BD```"[
 +`
 +end
 +==============================================================================
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +;*  "HIRES80.BIN" hires line plotting package for the Commodore 128 80-col   *
 +;*  screen.                                                                  *
 +;*                                                                           *
 +;*  This package contains a couple of irregularities that I discovered       *
 +;*  while I was commenting it.  I left them in rather than start all over,   *
 +;*  since this package was written with a monitor rather than an assembler.  *
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +;*  package entry points                                                     *
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +
 +.$1300  [4c 01 15]  jmp $1501     ;jmp to draw line/position pixel cursor
 +.$1303  [4c 11 13]  jmp $1311     ;jmp to enter hires mode
 +.$1306  [4c 48 13]  jmp $1348     ;jmp to exit hires mode
 +.$1309  [4c 10 13]  jmp $1310     ;reserved
 +.$130c  [4c 10 13]  jmp $1310     ;reserved
 +.$130f: $b3                       ;library loaded identifier
 +.$1310  [60      ]  rts
 +
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +;*  enter hires mode                                                         *
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +
 +.$1311  [a9 00    lda #$00      ;switch to bank 15 (kernal bank)
 +.$1313  [8d 00 ff]  sta $ff00
 +.$1316  [a9 e0    lda #$e0      ;set color to light grey on black
 +.$1318  [a2 1a    ldx #$1a
 +.$131a  [20 cc cd]  jsr $cdcc     ; ROM routine to write VDC register
 +.$131d  [a9 87    lda #$87      ;enter bitmap mode (note - for version 2 VDC)
 +.$131f  [a2 19    ldx #$19
 +.$1321  [20 cc cd]  jsr $cdcc
 +.$1324  [a9 00    lda #$00      ;set VDC RAM address high
 +.$1326  [a2 12    ldx #$12
 +.$1328  [20 cc cd]  jsr $cdcc
 +.$132b  [e8      ]  inx           ;set VDC RAM address low
 +.$132c  [20 cc cd]  jsr $cdcc
 +.$132f  [a9 00    lda #$00      ;set VDC RAM data register to $00
 +.$1331  [20 ca cd]  jsr $cdca
 +.$1334  [a9 20    lda #$20      ;select block fill mode
 +.$1336  [a2 18    ldx #$18
 +.$1338  [20 cc cd]  jsr $cdcc
 +.$133b  [a9 00    lda #$00      ;fill 256*63 VDC bytes with 0
 +.$133d  [a2 1e    ldx #$1e      ;  to clear the hires screen
 +.$133f  [a0 3f    ldy #$3f
 +.$1341  [20 cc cd]  jsr $cdcc
 +.$1344  [88      ]  dey
 +.$1345  [d0 fa    bne $1341
 +.$1347  [60      ]  rts
 +
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +;*  exit hires mode                                                          *
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +
 +.$1348  [20 0c ce]  jsr $ce0c     ;reload the character sets
 +.$134b  [a9 93    lda #$93      ;clear the text screen
 +.$134d  [20 d2 ff]  jsr $ffd2
 +.$1350  [a2 19    ldx #$19      ;restore color text mode
 +.$1352  [a9 47    lda #$47
 +.$1354  [4c cc cd]  jmp $cdcc
 +
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +;*calculate the bitmap byte address and bit value for pixel given x=.AX,y=.Y *
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +
 +.$1357  [84 fa    sty $fa       ;save .A and .Y
 +.$1359  [85 fc    sta $fc
 +.$135b  [98      ]  tya           ;put pixel cursor y position into .A
 +.$135c  [a0 00    ldy #$00      ;clear pixel cursor y position high byte
 +.$135e  [84 fb    sty $fb
 +.$1360  [0a      ]  asl a         ;multiply pixel cursor y by 2 giving y*2
 +.$1361  [26 fb    rol $fb       ;  and we must shift the high byte to
 +.$1363  [0a      ]  asl a         ;again, giving y*4
 +.$1364  [26 fb    rol $fb
 +.$1366  [18      ]  clc           ;add the original y, giving y*5
 +.$1367  [65 fa    adc $fa
 +.$1369  [90 02    bcc $136d
 +.$136b  [e6 fb    inc $fb
 +.$136d  [0a      ]  asl a         ;multiply by 2 again, giving y*10
 +.$136e  [26 fb    rol $fb
 +.$1370  [0a      ]  asl a         ;again, giving y*20
 +.$1371  [26 fb    rol $fb
 +.$1373  [0a      ]  asl a         ;again, giving y*40
 +.$1374  [26 fb    rol $fb
 +.$1376  [0a      ]  asl a         ;again, giving y*80: ha!  we are done
 +.$1377  [26 fb    rol $fb
 +.$1379  [85 fa    sta $fa       ;save low byte of y*80
 +.$137b  [a5 fc    lda $fc       ;restore x coordinate low byte
 +.$137d  [86 fd    stx $fd       ;set up x coordinate high byte
 +.$137f  [46 fd    lsr $fd       ;divide the x coordinate by 2 giving x/2
 +.$1381  [6a      ]  ror a         ;  we must ror the high byte, then the low
 +.$1382  [46 fd    lsr $fd       ;again, giving x/4
 +.$1384  [6a      ]  ror a
 +.$1385  [46 fd    lsr $fd       ;again, giving x/8: done
 +.$1387  [6a      ]  ror a
 +.$1388  [18      ]  clc           ;now add y*80 and x/8
 +.$1389  [65 fa    adc $fa
 +.$138b  [85 fa    sta $fa
 +.$138d  [a5 fd    lda $fd
 +.$138f  [65 fb    adc $fb
 +.$1391  [85 fb    sta $fb       ;giving us the pixel byte address in ($fa)
 +.$1393  [a5 fc    lda $fc       ;get x mod 8
 +.$1395  [29 07    and #$07      ;  ha! we can just extract the low three bits
 +.$1397  [aa      ]  tax
 +.$1398  [bd 9e 13]  lda $139e,  ;look up the bit value in the table
 +.$139b  [85 fc    sta $fc       ;  and save it at $fc
 +.$139d  [60      ]  rts           ;exit with address in ($fa) and value in $fc
 +
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +;*  bit value table                                                          *
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +
 +.$139e: $80  $40  $20  $10        ;bit values stored left to right
 +.$13a2: $08  $04  $02  $01
 +
 +.$13a6  [00      ]  brk           ;filler - I forget why I put it here
 +.$13a7  [00      ]  brk
 +
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +;*  plot pixel at x=.AX, y=.Y on bitmap screen                               *
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +
 +.$13a8  [20 57 13]  jsr $1357     ;calculate the pixel address and value
 +.$13ab  [a5 fb    lda $fb       ;set VDC RAM address high to pixel address
 +.$13ad  [a2 12    ldx #$12
 +.$13af  [20 cc cd]  jsr $cdcc
 +.$13b2  [a5 fa    lda $fa       ;set VDC RAM address low to pixel address
 +.$13b4  [e8      ]  inx
 +.$13b5  [20 cc cd]  jsr $cdcc
 +.$13b8  [20 d8 cd]  jsr $cdd8     ;peek the VDC RAM address
 +.$13bb  [05 fc    ora $fc       ;OR on the new pixel value
 +.$13bd  [a8      ]  tay           ;  and save the result (byte to poke back)
 +.$13be  [a5 fb    lda $fb       ;reset the VDC RAM address to the pixel
 +.$13c0  [a2 12    ldx #$12      ;  address; this is necessary since the
 +.$13c2  [20 cc cd]  jsr $cdcc     ;  VDC will increment its RAM address on
 +.$13c5  [a5 fa    lda $fa       ;  every access
 +.$13c7  [e8      ]  inx
 +.$13c8  [20 cc cd]  jsr $cdcc
 +.$13cb  [98      ]  tya
 +.$13cc  [4c ca cd]  jmp $cdca     ;and poke the new pixel byte value
 +
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +;*  perform the unsigned 32-bit divide with 16-bit denominator (bottom)      *
 +;*    [$63 $62 $61 $60] is the numerator (top)                               *
 +;*            [$51 $50] is the denominator (bottom)                          *
 +;*    [$67 $66 $65 $64] is the quotient (result)                             *
 +;*        [$54 $53 $52] is the remainder                                     *
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +
 +.$13cf  [a9 00    lda #$00      ;set the result to 0
 +.$13d1  [85 64    sta $64
 +.$13d3  [85 65    sta $65
 +.$13d5  [85 66    sta $66
 +.$13d7  [85 67    sta $67
 +
 +.$13d9  [85 52    sta $52       ;clear the remainder
 +.$13db  [85 53    sta $53
 +.$13dd  [85 54    sta $54
 +
 +.$13df  [a2 20    ldx #$20      ;set the loop count to 32 bits
 +.$13e1  [06 60    asl $60       ;shift out the high bit of the numerator
 +.$13e3  [26 61    rol $61
 +.$13e5  [26 62    rol $62
 +.$13e7  [26 63    rol $63
 +.$13e9  [26 52    rol $52       ;shift it into the remainder
 +.$13eb  [26 53    rol $53
 +.$13ed  [26 54    rol $54
 +.$13ef  [a5 54    lda $54       ;check if the remainder is >= the denominator
 +.$13f1  [d0 0a    bne $13fd
 +.$13f3  [a5 52    lda $52
 +.$13f5  [c5 50    cmp $50
 +.$13f7  [a5 53    lda $53
 +.$13f9  [e5 51    sbc $51
 +.$13fb  [90 11    bcc $140e     ;if not, go to next bit
 +.$13fd  [38      ]  sec           ;subract the denominator from the remainder
 +.$13fe  [a5 52    lda $52
 +.$1400  [e5 50    sbc $50
 +.$1402  [85 52    sta $52
 +.$1404  [a5 53    lda $53
 +.$1406  [e5 51    sbc $51
 +.$1408  [85 53    sta $53
 +.$140a  [b0 02    bcs $140e
 +.$140c  [c6 54    dec $54
 +.$140e  [26 64    rol $64       ;shift a "1" bit into the quotient.  Note
 +.$1410  [26 65    rol $65       ;  the first "rol" should have been preceeded
 +.$1412  [26 66    rol $66       ;  by a "sec"; this is a BUG!  However, it
 +.$1414  [26 67    rol $67       ;  will fail only if denom >=32768 which
 +                                  ;  cannot happen in this application.
 +.$1416  [ca      ]  dex           ;go on to the next bit
 +.$1417  [d0 c8    bne $13e1
 +.$1419  [60      ]  rts
 +
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +;*  get the absolute value of the 2's comp number in .AY -> .AY              *
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +
 +.$141a  [84 50    sty $50
 +.$141c  [a6 50    ldx $50
 +.$141e  [10 10    bpl $1430     ;if the number is positive, exit
 +.$1420  [38      ]  sec           ;else take the 2's complement of the negative
 +.$1421  [85 50    sta $50       ;  value to get the positive value
 +.$1423  [a9 00    lda #$00
 +.$1425  [e5 50    sbc $50
 +.$1427  [48      ]  pha
 +.$1428  [84 50    sty $50
 +.$142a  [a9 00    lda #$00
 +.$142c  [e5 50    sbc $50
 +.$142e  [a8      ]  tay
 +.$142f  [68      ]  pla
 +.$1430  [60      ]  rts
 +
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +;*  perform the fractional signed 32-bit divide                              *
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +
 +.$1431  [48      ]  pha           ;remember the sign of the result
 +.$1432  [a9 00    lda #$00      ;set the numerator fractional portion to .0
 +.$1434  [85 60    sta $60
 +.$1436  [85 61    sta $61
 +.$1438  [20 cf 13]  jsr $13cf     ;32-bit divide
 +.$143b  [68      ]  pla           ;if the sign of the result is supposed to be
 +.$143c  [10 19    bpl $1457     ;  positive, then exit
 +.$143e  [38      ]  sec           ;if the sign of the result is negative, take
 +.$143f  [a9 00    lda #$00      ;  get the 2's complement of the positive
 +.$1441  [e5 64    sbc $64       ;  result
 +.$1443  [85 64    sta $64
 +.$1445  [a9 00    lda #$00
 +.$1447  [e5 65    sbc $65
 +.$1449  [85 65    sta $65
 +.$144b  [a9 00    lda #$00
 +.$144d  [e5 66    sbc $66
 +.$144f  [85 66    sta $66
 +.$1451  [a9 00    lda #$00
 +.$1453  [e5 67    sbc $67
 +.$1455  [85 67    sta $67
 +.$1457  [60      ]  rts
 +
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +;*  get the X and Y plotting increments and the pixels-to-plot count         *
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +
 +.$1458  [a5 0c    lda $0c       ;get ABS(DX)
 +.$145a  [a4 0d    ldy $0d
 +.$145c  [20 1a 14]  jsr $141a
 +.$145f  [85 fa    sta $fa
 +.$1461  [84 fb    sty $fb
 +
 +.$1463  [a5 10    lda $10       ;get ABS(DY)
 +.$1465  [a4 11    ldy $11
 +.$1467  [20 1a 14]  jsr $141a
 +.$146a  [85 fc    sta $fc
 +.$146c  [84 fd    sty $fd
 +
 +.$146e  [a5 fc    lda $fc       ;compare ABS(DY) to ABS(DX)
 +.$1470  [c5 fa    cmp $fa
 +.$1472  [a5 fd    lda $fd
 +.$1474  [e5 fb    sbc $fb
 +.$1476  [b0 44    bcs $14bc     ;if ABS(DY) >= ABS(DX) then branch ahead
 +
 +.$1478  [a5 fa    lda $fa       ;set pixels-to-plot count to ABS(DX)
 +.$147a  [85 12    sta $12
 +.$147c  [85 50    sta $50
 +.$147e  [a5 fb    lda $fb
 +.$1480  [85 13    sta $13
 +.$1482  [85 51    sta $51       ;set the numerator (top) to DY and the
 +.$1484  [a5 fc    lda $fc       ;  denominator (bottom) to ABS(DX)
 +.$1486  [85 62    sta $62
 +.$1488  [a5 fd    lda $fd
 +.$148a  [85 63    sta $63
 +.$148c  [a5 11    lda $11       ;get the sign of DY - will be the sign of div
 +.$148e  [20 31 14]  jsr $1431     ;perform the signed fractional division
 +.$1491  [a2 03    ldx #$03      ;store the result in the Y increment value
 +.$1493  [b5 64    lda $64,x
 +.$1495  [95 0e    sta $0e,x
 +.$1497  [ca      ]  dex
 +.$1498  [10 f9    bpl $1493
 +.$149a  [a5 0d    lda $0d       ;get the X increment
 +.$149c  [30 0a    bmi $14a8
 +.$149e  [a9 00    lda #$00      ;if DX is positive, X inc is +1
 +.$14a0  [85 0d    sta $0d       ;  (note that DX cannot be 0 here so we don't
 +.$14a2  [a9 01    lda #$01      ;   have to worry about that case)
 +.$14a4  [85 0c    sta $0c
 +.$14a6  [d0 06    bne $14ae
 +.$14a8  [a9 ff    lda #$ff      ;if DX is negative, X inc is -1
 +.$14aa  [85 0d    sta $0d
 +.$14ac  [85 0c    sta $0c
 +
 +.$14ae  [38      ]  sec           ;take the negative of the number of pixels
 +.$14af  [a9 00    lda #$00      ;  to plot and exit
 +.$14b1  [e5 12    sbc $12       ;I don't remember exactly why I use the
 +.$14b3  [85 12    sta $12       ;  negative; there is not much of a speed
 +.$14b5  [a9 00    lda #$00      ;  improvement.  Oh well, t'is done.
 +.$14b7  [e5 13    sbc $13
 +.$14b9  [85 13    sta $13
 +.$14bb  [60      ]  rts
 +
 +.$14bc  [a5 fc    lda $fc       ;set the pixels-to-plot count to ABS(DY)
 +.$14be  [85 12    sta $12
 +.$14c0  [85 50    sta $50
 +.$14c2  [a5 fd    lda $fd
 +.$14c4  [85 13    sta $13
 +.$14c6  [85 51    sta $51       ;set the numerator (top) to DX and the
 +.$14c8  [a5 fa    lda $fa       ;  denominator(bottom) to ABS(DY)
 +.$14ca  [85 62    sta $62
 +.$14cc  [a5 fb    lda $fb
 +.$14ce  [85 63    sta $63
 +.$14d0  [a5 0d    lda $0d       ;get the sign of DX - will be the sign of div
 +.$14d2  [20 31 14]  jsr $1431     ;do the 32-bit signed fractional division
 +.$14d5  [a2 03    ldx #$03      ;store the result in the X increment
 +.$14d7  [b5 64    lda $64,x
 +.$14d9  [95 0a    sta $0a,x
 +.$14db  [ca      ]  dex
 +.$14dc  [10 f9    bpl $14d7
 +.$14de  [4c ea 14]  jmp $14ea     ;jump over the next section
 +;-------
 +.$14e1  [2c ff ff]  bit $ffff     ;This section contained junk before and I
 +.$14e4  [2c ff ff]  bit $ffff     ;  don't know how it got here.  I replaced
 +.$14e7  [2c ff ff]  bit $ffff     ;  it with BITs and now jump over it.
 +;-------
 +.$14ea  [a5 11    lda $11
 +.$14ec  [30 0a    bmi $14f8
 +.$14ee  [a9 00    lda #$00      ;if DY is positive then Y inc is +1
 +.$14f0  [85 11    sta $11       ;  (we do not have to worry about the case
 +.$14f2  [a9 01    lda #$01      ;   of DY being zero since then the increment
 +.$14f4  [85 10    sta $10       ;   would not be important)
 +.$14f6  [d0 06    bne $14fe
 +.$14f8  [a9 ff    lda #$ff      ;if DY is negative then Y inc is -1
 +.$14fa  [85 11    sta $11
 +.$14fc  [85 10    sta $10
 +.$14fe  [4c ae 14]  jmp $14ae     ;jump back to the exit
 +
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +;*  main routine: draw line or set pixel cursor position                     *
 +;*****************************************************************************
 +
 +.$1501  [b0 07    bcs $150a     ;goto draw routine if .C=1
 +.$1503  [85 8b    sta $8b       ;store x and y pixel cursor coordinates
 +.$1505  [86 8c    stx $8c
 +.$1507  [84 8d    sty $8d
 +.$1509  [60      ]  rts           ;exit set pixel cursor
 +
 +.$150a  [85 04    sta $04       ;save draw-to coordinates
 +.$150c  [86 05    stx $05
 +.$150e  [84 08    sty $08
 +.$1510  [a2 07    ldx #$07      ;clear $0a-$0d and $0e-$11
 +.$1512  [a9 00    lda #$00
 +.$1514  [95 0a    sta $0a,x
 +.$1516  [ca      ]  dex
 +.$1517  [10 fb    bpl $1514
 +
 +.$1519  [38      ]  sec           ;get dx value = DrawToX - PixelCursorX
 +.$151a  [a5 04    lda $04       ;  dx is at [$0d $0c . $0b $0a]
 +.$151c  [e5 8b    sbc $8b
 +.$151e  [85 0c    sta $0c
 +.$1520  [a5 05    lda $05
 +.$1522  [e5 8c    sbc $8c
 +.$1524  [85 0d    sta $0d
 +
 +.$1526  [38      ]  sec           ;get dy value = DrawToY - PixelCursorY
 +.$1527  [a5 08    lda $08       ;  dy is at [$11 $10 . $0f $0e]
 +.$1529  [e5 8d    sbc $8d
 +.$152b  [85 10    sta $10
 +.$152d  [a9 00    lda #$00
 +.$152f  [b0 02    bcs $1533
 +.$1531  [a9 ff    lda #$ff
 +.$1533  [85 11    sta $11
 +
 +.$1535  [20 58 14]  jsr $1458     ;calculate the X and Y plotting increments
 +
 +.$1538  [a5 8b    lda $8b       ;set the drawing X position to x+0.5
 +.$153a  [85 04    sta $04       ;  X is at [$05 $04 . $03 $02]
 +.$153c  [a5 8c    lda $8c
 +.$153e  [85 05    sta $05
 +.$1540  [a9 80    lda #$80
 +.$1542  [85 03    sta $03
 +.$1544  [85 07    sta $07
 +.$1546  [a9 00    lda #$00
 +.$1548  [85 02    sta $02
 +.$154a  [85 06    sta $06
 +.$154c  [a5 8d    lda $8d       ;set the drawing Y position to y+0.5
 +.$154e  [85 08    sta $08       ;  Y is at [$09 $08 . $07 $06]
 +.$1550  [a9 00    lda #$00
 +.$1552  [85 09    sta $09
 +
 +.$1554  [a5 04    lda $04       ;get the pixel X and Y coordinates
 +.$1556  [a6 05    ldx $05
 +.$1558  [a4 08    ldy $08
 +.$155a  [20 a8 13]  jsr $13a8     ;plot the pixel
 +.$155d  [a5 12    lda $12       ;check the pixels-to-plot count for zero
 +.$155f  [05 13    ora $13
 +.$1561  [f0 3b    beq $159e     ;if no more pixels to plot, exit loop
 +.$1563  [18      ]  clc           ;add the X increment to the X coordinate
 +.$1564  [a5 02    lda $02
 +.$1566  [65 0a    adc $0a
 +.$1568  [85 02    sta $02
 +.$156a  [a5 03    lda $03
 +.$156c  [65 0b    adc $0b
 +.$156e  [85 03    sta $03
 +.$1570  [a5 04    lda $04
 +.$1572  [65 0c    adc $0c
 +.$1574  [85 04    sta $04
 +.$1576  [a5 05    lda $05
 +.$1578  [65 0d    adc $0d
 +.$157a  [85 05    sta $05
 +.$157c  [18      ]  clc           ;add the Y increment to the Y coordinate
 +.$157d  [a5 06    lda $06
 +.$157f  [65 0e    adc $0e
 +.$1581  [85 06    sta $06
 +.$1583  [a5 07    lda $07
 +.$1585  [65 0f    adc $0f
 +.$1587  [85 07    sta $07
 +.$1589  [a5 08    lda $08
 +.$158b  [65 10    adc $10
 +.$158d  [85 08    sta $08
 +.$158f  [a5 09    lda $09
 +.$1591  [65 11    adc $11
 +.$1593  [85 09    sta $09
 +.$1595  [e6 12    inc $12       ;increment the pixels to plot count
 +.$1597  [d0 bb    bne $1554     ;  note that it is stored as the negative of
 +.$1599  [e6 13    inc $13       ;  the count
 +.$159b  [4c 54 15]  jmp $1554     ;repeat plotting loop
 +
 +.$159e  [a5 04    lda $04       ;exit - set the pixel cursor position to the
 +.$15a0  [a6 05    ldx $05       ;  last pixel plotted on the line
 +.$15a2  [a4 08    ldy $08
 +.$15a4  [4c 03 15]  jmp $1503
 +==============================================================================
 +THE END
 +</code>
magazines/chacking1.txt ยท Last modified: 2015-04-17 04:34 (external edit)