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magazines:chacking15 [2015-04-17 04:34] (current)
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 + ###### ​           ###### ​           Issue #15
 +   ################## ​              ​Version 1.0
 +       ######## ​                     April 1998
 +(Text Logo design by Mark Lawrence -
 +@(#​)contents:​ Table of Contents
 +  ​
 +   6. Click to Mode Switch: ​ The 40-80 Mouse switch by Michael Nausch
 +      (Reference: hw)
 +        You have graduated from a 64 to a "​you'​ll have to pry my dead fingers
 + from the keyboard"​ 128.  However, your favorite editor works only in
 + 40 column mode and your application runs in 80 column mode.  Your
 + 40/80 key is giving you carpal tunnel sybndrome, and you think no end
 + is in sight. ​ Well, let Michael Nausch relieve some of your problems
 + with this innovative project.
 +   8. The Canonical List of Commodore Produced Products, v2.0 by Jim Brain
 +      (Reference: list)
 +        In 1994, I decided to determine what specific models of CBM equipment
 + I had in my collection, and I posted the results on the Internet, with
 + some simple questions I had.  Well, responses came in, and thus began
 + the Commodore Products List, aiming to catalog every model and
 + mutation of every product Commodore ever produced. ​ Extended with
 + information gleaned over the last year, I present version 2.0 of this
 + reference work.
 +  11. Scott Ballantyne : Blazing into Forth - An Interview by Jim Lawless
 +      (Reference: forth)
 +        Have you ever wondered who wrote the programming language you use
 + for your projects, or why?  Well, for those who have ever used Blazin'​
 + FORTH, here's your chance to get the scoop on how the Commodore
 + implementation of FORTH came to be.
 +  15. Technical Information on the VIC-20 by Ward Shrake
 +      (Reference: vic)
 +        Of the CBM 8-bits, the 64/128 machines garner the most talk and
 + support. ​ However, the VIC-20 maintains a loyal and devoted following,
 + in spite of living in the shadow of its bigger brothers. ​ Ward Shrake
 + provides some pin out information and technical notes on the "​friendly
 + computer",​ Commodore'​s first home computer system.
 +   4. Hi Tech Trickery by Sean Adams
 +      (Reference: trick)  ​
 +        Well, just when you thought everything about the NMOS 65XX line had
 + been documented, exploited, and understood, Sean proves everyone
 + wrong. ​ Sean discusses a previously unknown side effect of the illegal
 + $AF opcode that turns on extra cicutry in the NMOS code and reduces
 + cycle exuction times by almost half for 3+ cycle opcodes! ​ Imagine
 + executing an Indirect X EOR (Opcode $41) in 3 cycles.  ​
 +  10. Hacking BASICs by Richard T. Cunningham
 +      (Reference: basic)
 +        The JAVA community does not have a monopoly on the concept of "write
 + once, run anywhere"​. ​ Richard discusses ways to write your BASIC apps
 + so they will run equally well on both the C64 and the C128, while
 + not compromising speed or flexibility.
 +  13. Twiddling the Bits by Frank Kontros
 +      (Reference: bits)
 +        In this age of 33,600 bps modems with a 56K standard on the way,
 + Getting by with the software UART in the 64 and 128 is even harder
 + to smallow. ​ In the past, commercial offerings like Swiftlink and the
 + new Turbo232 have offered us hope in the form of a hardware UART
 + replacement. ​ However, many do-it-youself folks have put together the
 + DataPump circuit by Perry M. Grodzinski. ​ Well, Frank Kontros has
 + updated this useful circuit with simpler circuitry and an easier
 + layout.
 +   1. The (cough, cough) Hacking Editor
 +      (Reference: editor)
 +   2. Input/​Output
 +      (Reference: io)
 +   3. Newsfront
 +      (Reference: news)
 +   5. Hacking the Mags
 +      (Reference: mags)
 +   7. FIDO's Nuggets
 +      (Reference: fido)
 +   9. Hack Surfing
 +      (Reference: surf)
 +  12. Commodore Trivia
 +      (Reference: trivia)
 +  14. ? DS, DS$: rem The Error Channel
 +      (Reference: error)
 +  16. The Next Hack
 +      (Reference: next)
 +  17. Hacking the Code
 +      (Reference: code)
 +@(#)legal: Commodore Hacking Legal Notice
 +Commodore and the respective Commodore product names are trademarks or 
 +registered trademarks of Amiga Technologies,​ Inc, Gateway 2000, Inc., or
 +Tulip COmputer Corporation. ​ Commodore Hacking is in no way affiliated with 
 +any said companies. ​ Commodore Hacking is published 4 times yearly by:
 +Brain Innovations Inc. 
 +10710 Bruhn Avenue
 +Bennington, NE  68007
 +The magazine is published on on-line networks free of charge, and a nominal ​
 +fee is charged for alternate mediums of transmission.  ​
 +Permission is granted to re-distribute this "​net-magazine"​ or "​e-zine"​ in
 +its entirety for non-profit use.  A charge of no more than US$5.00 may be 
 +charged by redistribution parties to cover printed duplication and no more
 +than US$10.00 for other types of duplication to cover duplication and media
 +costs for this publication. ​ If this publications is included in a
 +for-profit compilation,​ this publication must be alternately available
 +separately or as part of a non-profit compilation.
 +This publication,​ in regards to its specific ordering and compilations of
 +various elements, is copyright (c) 1995-98 by Brain Innovations,​
 +Incorporated,​ unless otherwise noted. ​ Each work in this publication
 +retains any and all copyrights pertaining to the individual work's contents.
 +For redistribution rights to individual works, please contact the author
 +of said work or Brain Innovations,​ Inc.
 +Brain Innovations,​ Inc. assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions
 +in editorial, article, or program listing content.  ​
 +  ​
 +@(#)info: Commodore Hacking Information
 +  ​
 +Commodore Hacking is published via the Internet 4 times yearly, and is 
 +presented in both ISO-8859-1 and HTML versions. ​ This and previous issues
 +can be found at the Commodore Hacking Home Page 
 +(http://​​chacking/​),​ as well as via FTP 
 +In addition, the Commodore Hacking mail server can be used to retrieve each 
 +issue. ​ To request a copy of an issue, please send the following electronic ​
 +mail message:
 +Subject: FTPMAIL
 +Body of Message:
 +cd /​pub/​cbm/​mags/​c=hacking/​
 +send c=hacking13.txt ​
 +To retrieve a PKZIP 1.01 archive of the individual articles in Commodore
 +Hacking, request the file
 +To subscribe to Commodore Hacking and receive new issues as they are 
 +published, please send the following email message:
 +Subject: LISTSERV
 +Body of Message:
 +subscribe chacking-dist Firstname LastName msglen
 +review chacking-dist
 +To subscribe to the PKZIP1.01 forma, substitute the following line for the
 +subscribe command above:
 +subscribe chackzip-dist Firstname LastName msglen
 +(msglen is largest size of email message in line you can receive. ​ Each
 +line is roughly 50 characters, so 600 lines is about 30000 bytes. ​ When
 +in doubt, choose 600)
 +subscribe c=hacking-dist Jim Brain 600
 +Although no fee is charged for this magazine, donations are gladly accepted ​
 +from corporate and individual concerns. ​ All moneys will be used to defray ​
 +any administrative costs, subscribe to publications for review, and 
 +compensate the individual authors contributing to this issue.
 +If you can not obtain Commodore Hacking through any other means and wish
 +to purchase a copy on disk, please address a check or money order to 
 +"Jim Brain" and mail to:
 +Jim Brain
 +10710 Bruhn Avenue
 +Bennington, NE  68007
 +Disk copies of each issue: ​                ​USD$5.00
 +All prices cover only duplication and materials and include shipping in
 +the United States. ​ For disk copies, please specify format:
 +Computer ​    Disk Size     ​Capacity ​  Notes
 +       ​
 +CBM/​PETSCII ​ 5.25 inch     170 kB     1541 format
 +                           340 kB     1571 format
 +             3.50 inch     800 kB     ​1581/​FD2000 format
 +                           1.6 MB     ​FD2000/​FD4000 format
 +IBM/​ASCII ​   3.50 inch     720 kB     ​Double Density
 +                           1.4 MB     High Density
 +Any persons wishing to author articles for inclusion in Commodore Hacking
 +are encouraged to view the submission guidelines on the WWW
 +@(#)rch: Reading C=Hacking
 +  ​
 +Starting with Issue 11 of Commodore Hacking, the new QuickFind indexing ​
 +system is utilized to aid readers of the text version in navigating the
 +magazine. ​ At the top  of each article or other important place in the
 +magazine, a word prefixed with a special string is present. ​ (See the
 +title of this article for an example.) ​ Throughout the magazine, if an
 +article is mentioned, it will be followed by a reference string. ​ For
 +example, if we mentioned this article, we would add (Reference: rch) after
 +the name.  By using your favorite editor'​s search function and searching
 +for the string after the word "​Reference:",​ prefixed by the magic prefix
 +string, will move you directly to the article of choice. ​ To merely skip to
 +the next article in the magazine, search only for the magic prefix string.
 +Some handy indexing strings possibly not referenced anywhere are:
 +top      top of issue
 +bottom ​  ​bottom of issue
 +contents table of contents
 +legal    legal notice
 +For those with access to a UNIX system, the command "​what"​ can be
 +run on the issue, which will result in all the article titles being
 +A slightly different magic prefix string "​@(A)"​ is used to delimit
 +sub-topics or main heading in articles. ​ The text after the magic string
 +differs depending on article content. ​ For the Input/​Output column
 +(Reference: io), the text after the magic prefix will either be "​c"​ for 
 +comment, or "​r"​ for response. ​ In features and columns, a number after
 +the prefix indicates the ordinal of that heading or sub-topic in the
 +article. ​ If a specific sub-topic is referenced elsewhere in the article,
 +a sub-topic reference will be indicated. ​ A reference to "​@(A)r"​ would
 +be written as "​(SubRef:​ r)".
 +As time goes on, the role of this indexing system will be expanded and
 +changed to ease navigation of the text version, but minimize the clutter
 +added by these extra items.
 +@(#)editor: The Hacking Editor
 +            by Jim Brain (
 +Better Late Than Never
 +Unless you've been offline and out of touch for the past year, you've no doubt
 +wondered what happened to Commodore Hacking. ​ Many thought we had given up the
 +ghost. ​ Well, we are still kicking, although a lot has changed in the time
 +since issue #14 went out.  Readers deserve an explanation for our absence, but
 +I'll try to keep it short. ​
 +The Hacking Headquarters move in '96 delayed issue 13, which delayed issue 14,
 +even though I tried unsuccessfully to meet the issue 14 October 1996 deadline.
 +I tried to edit issue 15 in January 1997, but stopped due to a low number of
 +technical articles. ​ C=H received some criticism after issue 13 for its
 +"​diminishing technical content",​ so I wanted to make sure issue 15 didn'​t ​
 +disappoint. ​ The article selection improved by May, but a post in comp.sys.cbm
 +caused work to stop, and I didn't pick up the work again until August. ​ At
 +that time, I chatted with Stephen Judd, who motivated me to get back on the
 +issue. ​ However, just when things started rolling again, my wife took ill, and
 +that brings us to a few weeks ago.  In short, it's been a trying time for
 +your editor, but things are finally looking better. ​ Not only is the issue
 +taking shape, but my wife's illness has a silver lining: a tiny BRAIN will be
 +joining us in late July.
 +The astute reader have noticed a trend developing, but I'll clarify. ​ It's
 +safe to say I have more than a few CBM projects in progress, Commodore Hacking
 +being just one.  The above underscores the fragile nature of my environment at
 +present, and I have been warned that chaos will rule starting in August. ​ So,
 +it's time to make some changes. ​ The delay for this issue is unacceptable to
 +me, even considering my explanation,​ and I do not wish to "​kill"​ the
 +publication;​ I took over editorship expressly to continue this fine journal.
 +With this issue, It is with bittersweet feelings that I formally turn the
 +editorial office over to Stephen Judd.  I am convinced that Steve can take
 +this publication into new territory and satisfy even the most discerning of
 +technical reader. ​ I regret that I can no longer provide this publication with
 +the attention it deserves, but I find happiness in returning as a reader and
 +"​sometimes"​ article writer, if Steve deems my work worthy of merit :-).  I'll
 +comfort myself with issue 16. I'll just print it out and peruse it at my
 +Since I still hold the office, I'll introduce our new editor, and hopefully
 +set the correct expectations for the future of Commodore Hacking.
 +In 1995, when Craig Taylor (the originator of C=H) graduated and inquired
 +about a editorial successor, Steve and I both applied. ​ If memory recalls,
 +Steve was active at school, so I took the editorship. ​ Now, my operating
 +environment is less stable. ​ I rather think of it as "tag team editting"​.  ​
 +Steve brings with him a desire to focus more intently on technical articles
 +and projects. ​ During my tenure as editor, I've tried to create a more
 +"​balanced"​ publication,​ based on the status of CBM publications in 1995, when
 +I started. ​ In fact, Craig Taylor, this publication'​s originator, applauded
 +the changes. ​ Nontheless, Craig'​s early work set the tone for this
 +publication,​ and I've been remiss in maintaining the level and number of
 +technical articles. ​ Steve and I still feel the "​lighter fare" I've introduced
 +has merit, but we think the two should exist in separate publications. ​ To that
 +end, Commodore Hacking will concentrate on delivering plenty of technical
 +content, while I am investigating a monthly newsletter publication for the
 +less technical items. ​ This way, the less technical readers won't have to wait
 +for three months or more for a new installment of Hack Surfing, but the
 +technical readers can concentrate on new algorithms and applications.  ​
 +Steve runs with the technical crowd more than I.  This has distinct benefits
 +when publishing a technical magazine. ​ After I took over in 1995, some regular
 +C=H writers had to forego authoring for the publication. ​ That left me
 +scrambling to find new talent to write. ​ Aside from being one of the regular
 +contributors,​ Steve knows many folks with new ideas and concepts that can only
 +benefit from publication in this journal.  ​
 +So, many changes will accompany issue 16, and I feel confident that most will
 +welcome the changes. ​ However, there are a number of items that will not
 +Commodore Hacking will always succeed or fail on the quality of its content,
 +not Steve'​s editorship ability. ​ With this new direction, technical articles ​
 +will comprise the bulk of the publication. ​ If you enjoy the technical aspects
 +of the CBM platform, I ask that you support this journal with an article about
 +your insights or discoveries. ​ It cannot succeed without you.
 + will continue to host the home page for Commodore Hacking. ​ I
 +will need to retool the site to convert the new issues, but text issues will
 +always be available, and you can continue to contact the editor of Commodore
 +Hacking at ​ In addition, the chacking distributions
 +lists will continue to be offered at ​ In short, only the editor
 +and the style are changing.
 +I would like to thank all of you for supporting Commodore Hacking. ​ In
 +addition, I would like to thank the article contributors. ​ Without you, there
 +would be no publication. ​ And to those who think I am moving on, save your
 +concerns. ​ I am not discontinuing support for Commodore, just making some room
 +in my schedule for some family (and baby) time.
 +Enjoy YOUR magazine,
 +     ​
 +Jim Brain (
 +editor ​    
 +@(#)io: Input/​Output ​
 +Obviously, Commodore Hacking depends on the comments and article ​
 +submissions from the Commodore community to flourish. ​ Everyone sees the 
 +articles, but let's not forget those comments. ​ They are very helpful, ​
 +and every attempt is made to address concerns in them.  Address any 
 +comments, concerns, or suggestions to: 
 +Commodore Hacking ​
 +10710 Bruhn Avenue
 +Bennington, NE  68007 (Internet) ​
 + ​   ​
 +@(A)c: Kudos for the Mag!
 +From: Tim Wright <​>​
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +I've hit the jackpot...
 +Browsing the Web under the topic C64 I hit this treasure trove
 +of information,​ all neatly laid out waiting to be downloaded.
 +You are a total and utter star!
 +Keep up the excellent work.
 +Kind Regards,
 +Tim. :-)
 +@(A)r: ​
 +Well, <​blush>​ I am not sure I deserve the credit. ​ I simply package what the
 +Commodore technical community offers and disseminate it to the public. ​ The
 +success of Commodore Hacking ahs more to do with the quality of the folks who
 +compose the content than the dude that pastes it together. ​ So, this goes out
 +to all the past and present article contributors to Commodore Hacking.
 +@(A)c: The "​Virtual 1541" Revisited
 +From: (Peter Hoffman)
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +In issue #14 of C=Hacking, there was a small article about a virtual 1541.  ​
 +You wrote: "The closest thing as yet is the 64NET package, which allows you to
 +load and save programs to the IBM PC hard drive like it was a regular CBM 
 +drive."​ I do not agree, I tried an old version of SERVER64, and it comes much 
 +closer, since it uses the same cable as X1541, so you just need to build a 
 +cable. 64NET is a bit more complicated.
 +I do not know where I got it and who wrote it, but I will look that up. The 
 +version I have at home, has some flaws, but I used it with a 286-12MHz PC and 
 +that worked.
 +Peter Hofman
 +@(A)r: ​
 +We stand corrected. ​ SERVER64 offers the advantage over 64NET that no code
 +modifications are needed to programs to allow them to "​see"​ the virtual drive.
 +The downside of SERVER64 is the slow speed of the serial bus (64NET uses a
 +parallel cable). ​ So, users have two choices for a "​virtual drive"​. ​ For yet
 +another offering, see the next letter:
 +@(A)c: The "​Virtual 1541" Revisited, Part 2
 +From: Torsten Paul <​>​
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +I have good news about your statement about a "​Virtual 1541" in Issue 14:
 +I've written a program that emulates the standard serial protocol with a PC 
 +(under DOS). This makes it possible to load files without any special software ​
 +on the C64 side. The only thing needed is a so called 'X1541 cable' to connect ​
 +the C64 to the PC.  It's not possible to load disk sectors or read drive memory
 +and for fastloaders there is no chance at all, because there is no
 +hardware emulation. But you can transparently access disk images, tape
 +images and lynx archives.
 +The program is quite new and not very well tested on different
 +platforms but it works on my two PCs at home (a 486DX4/100 and a
 +really old 386sx/25).
 +It's available under '​http://​​~paul/​VC1541/'​.
 +We tahnk you for the information. ​ So now, users have not one, but three
 +choices if they want to use an IBM PC as a glorified file server. ​ How ironic
 +that a PC would be used in such a way.
 +@(A)c: Giving Birth to Twins (magazines)
 +From: (Breelander)
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +I'd just like to say that you're doing a terrific job with this mag!
 +Also: could you make multiple copies of C=Hacking? (a "​small"​ version
 +and a full blown version) I divide my time between Commodores and PC's
 +pretty evenly, and since I read your mag on a PC with about 200 megs of
 +free space, size is no object to me. So PLEASE! Pack it with stuff!
 +@(A)r: ​
 +Well, as we noted above, we appreciate the great reviews, but we really need
 +to pass on those congratulations to the authors and contributors.  ​
 +As for your request for two versions of Commodore Hacking, your wish has been
 +granted, at least in a roundabout way.  Check out "The Hacking Editor"​
 +(Reference: editor) for details.
 +@(A)c: More "First Computer"​ Stories
 +From: Jeff Salzman <​>​
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +I read your opening story in C=H #14 and found it quite interesting. I have
 +a similar story which tells how I got my first computer (among other things)
 +documented at:
 +'Life of a Computer Techie'​
 +Please feel free to read it.
 +Jeff Salzman
 +Salzman'​s Computer Services
 +@(A)r: ​
 +Alright, another in the camp of the endlessly sentimental.  ​
 +@(A)c: Paging Karl Hildon, Karl Hildon, Please Call the Front Desk!
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +I sent Email to Karl Hildon via the address you published in the
 +C=Hacking#​14 KARL@INFORAMP.NET and when it was returned as "user
 +unknown"​ I sent 5 more off with various changes to see if I could
 +find a typo..they all came back to me. Is there a different
 +address, did I miss something? I'm dying to get ahold of some
 +of my missing Transactor Magazines..and would love to pick up
 +some of the disks...
 +@(A)r: ​
 +Well, it's our fault. ​ Karl can be reached (last time we checked) at,​ with an '​H'​ after KARL.  ​
 +@(A)c: CBM Rulez! TI Droolz!
 +From: Marcus Ickes <​>​
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +I read your article on spending your savings on the VIC instead of the
 +TI.  When I was 16 years old, I got the TI99/4A, I want to say, you are
 +right when you said you were fortunate to get the Commodore computer
 +instead. ​  I learned to program in BASIC and did a good job, but that
 +was all I could do.  I got an old C64 a few year ago and I am impressed
 +with the engineering that went into it.  It is a very well made
 +computer. ​ If I got that when I was 16, I would have learned much more
 +than just BASIC. ​ Thanks for all your hard work putting out Commodore
 +articles. ​ I'm going to start reading them from the first one and try to
 +learn the machine language. ​
 +Marcus Ickes  ( ​
 +@(A)r: ​
 +Well, in spite of our subject, we don't want to slam the TI folks. ​ However,
 +I am very happy fate brought me and the CBM together at that time.  At the
 +time, it seemed like I lost out, but 20/20 hindsight tells a different story.
 +@(A)c: "First Computer"​ Stories, Take 2
 +From: Lyle Kopnicky <​>​
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +Wow!  I'm excited about your magazine. ​ My first computer was a C64, which
 +lasted from 1982 to 1984.  My parents replaced it with another which I used
 +until 1986, when I got a C128.  I used that faithfully until 1990 when I got
 +an Amiga 2000.  In 1993 I attempted to upgrade it, but a crack in the
 +motherboard kept me frustrated for a year or two.  Finally, I broke down and
 +bought a Gateway 2000 in 1995, on which I run Linux and Windows 95.  I've
 +hacked away on all those machines, although it isn't much fun in Windows. ​ I
 +now have access to a working C64, 1541, and Datasette, and occasionally a
 +C128/​1571. ​ I also found a great C64 emulator for Windows 95/NT called PC64.
 +My friends and I just set up a 4-machine network, and we'll be installing
 +Red Hat Linux on a couple of machines. ​ We're looking forward to a lot of
 +hacking fun, and have considered using a C64 or Apple II as a part of the
 +network. ​ Your e-zine will be a great help!
 +I'm happy to say I will be able to contribute as well.  Two years ago,
 +over Christmas break, I worked on an interesting C64 software project,
 +designed to take the machine to previously untouched territory. ​ I spent a
 +week or two working on a Scheme interpreter for the 64.  If you're not
 +familiar with Scheme, it's a simple but powerful variant of Lisp.  I
 +actually made quite a bit of progress, but abandoned it when I no longer had
 +access to the development machine (a C128 in 64 mode). ​ Now, with the
 +availability of the C64 emulator, it will be easier to develop and test this
 +I had thought that perhaps no one would find this software useful any
 +longer, but I see now that I have an audience. ​ I'll get back on this
 +project sometime, hopefully soon.  Thanks for editing this great e-zine!
 +@(A)r: ​
 +YES!  Scheme needs to be on the 64/​128. ​ Please let us know when you get going
 +on the project again. ​ It never ceases to amze us what seemingly "​impossible"​
 +projects and products manage to appear on the 64/128 platform.
 +@(A)c: The '​I'​s Have It!
 +From: (Eric Pratt)
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +I am pretty happy about the C=Hacking magazine. ​ I access it through lynx at 
 +Andrews University. ​ I love to read it from my 64 using Novaterm and I tried 
 +to download it recently. ​ But, when I did, I got a few letter '​i'​s. ​ I 
 +contacted Nick Rossi about this and he said that the i's were tabs when there 
 +should have been spaces. ​ I would like to save this as a seq file for my word 
 +processor (Easy Script) but I don't want to have to edit every issue. ​ That 
 +would take a load of time!  I am downloading the text version of course and I 
 +would like to know if there is any way to get around the tabs.  I would just 
 +like to download and print to paper. ​ I appreciate your time and your magazine.
 +Eric Pratt
 +@(A)r: ​
 +The earliest issues do indeed exhibit this problem, due to the way they were
 +created (on UNIX). ​ When we get some time and motivation, we'll fix the
 +However, in the meantime, folks with a rudimentary grasp of BASIC should be
 +able to write a "quick and dirty" app that simple reads in the C=H issue from
 +disk, searches for and replaces every occurence of a TAB char (we're pretty
 +sure its 12, but check with your handy reference guide) with 3 or 4
 +spaces, and writes out the results to a separate file.  ​
 +@(A)c: "First Computer"​ Stories, Take 3
 +From: Piotr Walczak <​>​
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +Just to let you know - I heartly agree with your writing.
 +My adventure with computers started somewhere around 1982.
 +Actually it changed my life. Now as computer professional,​
 +dealing everyday with the latest computer technology,
 +I am recalling amazement of my first computer experience
 +with VIC-20. Miracle of *programming* =), PEEKing and
 +POKEing memory, frantic drive to master ML, ROM hacking.
 +It opened whole new world and turns to be very emotional
 +unforgetable experience. I guess, there is a lot of people
 +feeling this way.
 +Cheers, Piotr
 +P.S. I really pity those clueles guys who compare 8-bits
 +     to Pentium. They are lacking something very important,
 +     ​something what distinguish USERS from lUSERS =)
 +@(A)r: ​
 +I read the other day how the embedded computer field is having trouble finding
 +employees who can write code in ML that will fit in the cramped quarters of
 +the embedded computer platforms in use today. ​ It seems most new graduates
 +can;t fathom that in todays 64 bit multiple megabyte world, the world is
 +mostly run by machines with are blessed with an 8 bit micro, RAM is a luxury,
 +programs MUST be in ML, and 64 kB of program space is almost unheard of.
 +@(A)c: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.
 +From: (Chuck Sommerville)
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +I wrote a few games for the C64 a while back. Reading your stuff about the
 +C64 brought back some fond memories. ​ I thought I pushed that machine to
 +its limits back when I worked for EPYX.  I see There was still some room to
 +do some other wierd stuff. ​ The worst this I ever did was the raster code
 +for Ball Blazer, which had to figure out whether there were 63, 64, or 65
 +cycles on the scan line, and run 8 different pieces of interrupt code
 +depending on how close to the 40 lost cycles it was.  The problem was that
 +I had to write to 2 color registers on two consecutive lines. ​ This is a
 +problem if you have to do it on the bad line.  I had to get the timing down
 +to the cycle, syncronized by a timer tuned to the horizontal rate.  It
 +actually had to lose the 40 cycles in the middle of a particular
 +instruction. ​ You should have seen the jury rigged logic analyser we built
 +to see the timing!
 +Well, I probably don't have time to read all the back issues of C= hacking,
 +but it is fun to see this is still a topic of discussion.
 +Chuck Sommerville.
 +@(A)r: ​
 +All we can say is, WOW!  We bet there are hundreds of stories like this, where
 +the programmer simply didn't take NO for an answer, and made the 64/128 do
 +what needed to be done.
 +@(A)c: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +I just *knew* I'd seen something about an idea for a HTML viewer for the C64, 
 +found it last night in Hacking #13. I just recently got interested in this, 
 +and was wondering what the status is on this project? ​ I wish I could be of 
 +some help in contributing to its development,​ but I'm just not that good a 
 +programmer, and my experience with writing HTML documents goes back, uh, 
 +almost a week. :) From what little I do know of it, I'd think it could be 
 +done, at least most of the important stuff. Maybe a highlighted routine ​
 +similar to Lynx browsers, with different colors for the different <​Hn> ​
 +markers, for instance?
 +Anyway, just got to wondering. Thanks.
 +@(A)r: ​
 +You are correct. ​ I started an HTML article series, and I do hope to finish
 +it.  When I started the series, I hoped that by the time the first installment
 +came out or a little while after, a TCP/IP protocol stack would arrive for the
 +64, and I could write the HTML viewer to sit on top of that.  Well, the TCP
 +stack has not yet arrived, and I lost some motivation. ​ But, it's been moved
 +up on my list of projects, since I now need a viewer for the 64/128 for some
 +work I am doing. ​ Nothing like neccessity to get you going.
 +@(A)c: I've Been Waiting SOOOO Long!
 +From: Jeremy Lindeman ​ <​>​
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +I was wondering when the next Commodore Hacking Issue was coming out?
 +From: George Taylor
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +What happened to c-hacking? ​ I'd like to repackage all issues into a consistent
 +html/text format. Can I have permission to redistribute them?
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +Is there going to be anymore new issues of Commodore Hacking comming
 +out or have we seen the end? I hope it will continue, especially with
 +CMD's new accelerator being out now!
 +From: (Richard T. Cunningham)
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +Any revelation as to when #15 will be out?  I hate to say this, but #14 was 
 +back in November I think.
 +From: "Kevin Rowan" <​>​
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +Over here in Australia, sources of cutting-edge Commodore article
 +es and hardware/​software hacks are even harder to find than they are in 
 +the USA. I've been studiyng your publication schedule for a number of 
 +months now, eagerly awaiting C=Hacking Issue 15. Can you say when it might
 +be published? Has something gone wrong?
 + Kevin Rowan
 + Agent86
 +From: (Rikard Lundblad)
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +Is C-Hacking still active? ​ I just found this site and I can see that no 
 +issues at all was published during 1997.
 +Are all issues available in the .zip-format?​
 +From: Ernst Stavro Blofeld <​>​
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +I found C=Hacking in the middle of last year and discovered who much I
 +could still learn about the Commodore. ​ Since I have waited and waited
 +but not gotten any mailings. ​ (I think I have since unsubscribed.)
 +My questions are why do the issue dates on the HTML/TEXT versions not
 +agree with the publication dates in your web-page, and why have the
 +publication dates after Nov96 not been adhered to?  Are there no
 +submittions and C=Hacking has shut down??
 +I know there is a great deal of information being gathered and acted on,
 +just from emailing other Commodore enthusiasts. ​ Also many of the
 +C=Hacking articles were "To Be Continued..."​ and never were.  Please
 +enlighten me.
 +Alex (aka Blofeld)
 +@(A)r: ​
 +Yes, we're mighty late.  The full scoop on the reasons is spelled out in "The
 +Hacking Editor"​ (Reference: editor), so we won't reprint it here.  However,
 +everyone seemed to have a secondary question when asking about when the next
 +issue was to arrive, so let's tackle those:
 +George Taylor: ​ As per the copyright, users can reproduce and redistribute the
 +issues without any problems. ​ As for conversions to HTML, Make sure you do not
 +alter the magazine contents except to mark it up in the HTML format.  ​
 +Rikard Lundblad: ​ Only Issues 11 on are available in ZIPped format. ​ If time
 +permits, we'll convert the older issues to this format.
 +Ernst Stavro Blofeld: Well, submissions did fall off, but the main reason the
 +dates are wrong is that they were never strict. ​ I had tried to get an issue
 +out every 3 months, and I based the schedule on that, but quickly determined
 +that it's tough to stay on target with this magazine.
 +In any case, you are now reading issue #15, and I hope that everyone will
 +forgive the publisher for being late.
 +@(A)c: The Mystery Logo Designer Unvieled
 +From: "​Lawrence,​ Mark" <​>​
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +It's been a very long time since I'd heard anything about the C= Hacking ​
 +publication,​ but the other day I'd received an email from someone or other who
 +had read one of the early editions, and my article (sad as it was), and had
 +questions to ask of me!
 +I sniffed around, found that C= Hacking had not only continued on but evolved ​
 +into something much bigger and better, and it still has the big ascii C=Hacking ​
 +logo I designed at the top!!! ​ Wow...
 +Still awestruck,
 +@(A)r: ​
 +So, you're the one who penned our mighty logo.  Well, it's been rightly
 +attributed to you on this issue, and we appreciate the check-in after a long
 +trip.  My hope is that C=H makes it to 2001, so we can revel in the new
 +century with our magazine and maxhines.
 +@(A)c: CBM and Satellites: Bosom Buddies!
 +From: Alex Measday <​>​
 +Dear C=Hacking,
 +Hi!  I liked your web site when I happened upon it a year or so ago
 +(back when it was "​"​) - you seemed to be a real
 +Renaissance type of guy! - and I just recently revisited it (via
 +Alta-Vista because your address had changed). ​ I thought you
 +might appreciate the following, Commodore-related story.
 +Our company is building the ground control system for AT&​T'​s next
 +Telstar satellite, to be launched in May.  (As you might have heard, one
 +of the existing Telstar satellites was killed off by the solar magnetic
 +burst in January.) ​ Although the telemetry rate is fairly slow, the
 +system is pretty high-tech: Solaris workstations,​ VME PowerPCs running
 +LynxOS, and special hardware for encoding/​decoding the command and
 +telemetry data streams.
 +We've been flowing simulated telemetry data through the system, but a
 +couple of weeks ago, we were provided with actual spacecraft telemetry
 +(from ground tests of the satellite). ​ When we opened the box that had
 +been shipped to us, we found: an ordinary looking cassette tape and an
 +old COMMODORE tape drive with a little adapter box for the type of cable
 +we use!  We plugged it in, pushed the PLAY button, and watched as our
 +system locked on to real telemetry data.
 +(The tape drive was one of those about the size of a small book with
 +rounded edges. ​ That must have been a newer model than the big, boxy
 +drive I had on my VIC-20.)
 +Alex Measday
 +Integral Systems, Inc.
 +@(A)r: ​
 +This is an incredible story. ​ After a while, even the most optimistic CBM
 +owner can lose morale after months of PC and Mac stories. ​ This little tidbit
 +gives each of us a boost. ​ Besides, its a very impressive story in its own
 +@(#)news: Newsfront
 +@(A): New Products from LOADSTAR
 +The Compleat New Testament On Disk!: Search and print the King James
 +Version of the New Testament on three 1541 disks or one 1581 disk. SuperCPU
 +and RAMLink compatible for fast searches through multiple books. Export
 +text to Edstar files (Edstar Included!). Include accurate excerpts from The
 +Bible in your presentations and letters because this product is designed to
 +export the scriptures you need. Each book of the New Testament is broken
 +into highlights so that you can easily find key passages by name such as
 +the Sermon On The Mount, Marriage, Divorce, and Spiritual Gifts and
 +hundreds of other topics. ​ Three 5.25-inch disks, #​0042D5 ​ $20.00. One
 +3.5-inch disk #0025D3 $20.00.
 +The Compleat Old Testament on Disk!: ​ Search and print the King James
 +Version of the Old Testament on seven 1541 disks or three 1581 disks. SuperCPU
 +and RAMLink compatible for fast searches through multiple books. Export
 +text to Edstar files (Edstar Included!). Include accurate excerpts from The
 +Bible in your presentations and letters because this product is designed to
 +export the scriptures you need. Each book of the Old Testament is broken
 +into highlights so that you can easily find key passages by name. Seven
 +5.25-inch disks, #0046D5 $20.00. ​ Three 3.5-inch disks #0025D3, $20.00.
 +Star Extra #1,2,3: All the fun and essentials from the World Wide Web to you 
 +without a modem and online charge. All PD software fixed to work right off
 +the bat. No unarching, and no errors. No hassles with weirdly formatted
 +text. All the work has been done for you. Got a CMD SuperCPU plugged into
 +your computer? Well, those programs that would not  have worked when you
 +downloaded them have been fixed to work with your SuperCPU ​ without you
 +flipping a single switch! ​
 +Start Extra #1: One 1581 disk 0024D3 $12. Two 1541 disks #0041D5 $20
 +Start Extra #2: One 1581 disk 0027D3 $12. Two 1541 disks #0044D5 $20
 +Start Extra #3: One 1581 disk 0031D3 $12. Two 1541 disks #0048D5 $20
 +Demos and additional Information available at
 +@(A): Do You have (a) Fever!
 +Fron Down Under, it's Commodore Fever, a quarterly publication that contains
 +reviews of new software, websites, and utilities. ​ Each issue is packed with
 +contibuted articles and information on where to buy the latest software.
 +Finally, each issue comes with a cover disk with playable and watchable demos.
 +In the United States, you can order a subscription from Complete Console, the
 +US Distributor.  ​
 +A sample issue is US$6.00, while a 1 year subscription is US$22.00.
 +Obtain more information from
 +@(A): Finland Commodore Site Now Mirrored in USA!
 +Eric Chernoff announced a while back that the pub/cbm area is now
 +available at:
 +Via ftp:  ftp://​​pub/​micro/​commodore
 +Via HTTP: http://​​pub/​micro/​commodore/​frames.html
 + (This page is lynx-friendly as well as Netscape-friendly.)
 +@(A): TIFCU Mailing List Going Strong!
 +For everyone that has purchased Gaelyne Gasson'​s "The Internet for Commodore
 +Users" (TIFCU), Gaelyne is operating a mailing list to help field questions
 +and comments about the book and its contents. ​ To subscribe to the list,
 +simple send an email:
 +Subject: LISTSERV
 +Message Body:
 +subscribe tifcu FirstName LastName
 +@(A): Commodore Hacking Now Available In Microsoft Word Format
 +For those who read Commodore Hacking while at work (shame on you :-), Troy
 +Heidner has reformatted each issue of Commodore Hacking into Microsoft Word 6
 +format, for easy PC viewing. ​ His archive is available at:
 +@(A): Attention MSD Owners!
 +If you are the proud owner of a used MSD SD1 or SD2 disk drives but do not
 +have any documentation,​ S. Knight can help.  He is selling a complete
 +technical manual, affectionately called "The Word, According to MSD" at the
 +MSD headquarters. ​ It contains information on the drives, schematics, a list
 +of revisions, parts inventory, and the technical notes on the Rockwell 6511Q
 +CPU used in the drive electronics. ​ If you would like a copy, contact for pricing and availability.
 +@(A): Fledgling Commodore User Group Needs Your Support
 +Ken Jones, of the newly formed Connecticut Commodore Business Machines User's
 +Group (CCBMUG) is asking for your help to grow their club.  Current dues are 
 +$10.00 outside of CT and $10.60 inside of CT.  They can accept Visa and 
 +MasterCard. ​ A membership includes 6 newsletters,​ 5 disks fill of shareware,
 +and the benefits of belonging to a fine CBM user's group. ​ If you are
 +interested, please contact Ken at
 +@(A): OS/A65 Version 2.0 Preliminary Release Available
 +Andre Fachat has improved his OS/A65 detailed in Commodore hacking #13.
 +Version 2.0 includes support for SLIP (TCP/IP) server application,​ a
 +relocatable file format, and better libriary support. ​ The source has been
 +rewritten to offer better porting between architectures with system-specific
 +code being pulled into separate locations. ​ If you would like to install and
 +run this 2.0 beta version, please visit Andre'​s WWW site at:
 +@(A): Wheels 64 Slated for Shipping
 +After many months of development,​ bug fixing and tecting, Maurice Randall of
 +Click Here Software is readying the final product for shipment. ​ Maurice
 +expects to have disks in customer'​s hand in April, after finishing last minute
 +bug fixes and testing. ​ For those who do not know, Wheels 64 is the GEOS
 +upgrade developed by Randall to fix numerous bugs in GEOS 2.0, offer better
 +support for CMD peripherals,​ and provide new features GEOS users have
 +requested. ​ For detailed information and screen shots of Wheels, contact
 +Maurice Randall at:
 +Maurice Randall
 +P.O. Box 606
 +Charlotte MI 48813
 +PH: (517)543-5202 for more info
 +or visit my web site at:
 +@(A): Dialogue 128 Now Available as Freeware
 +Gary Farmaner has decided to release Dialogue 128, one of the best terminal
 +emulation programs available for the 128, as freeware. ​ Below is a reprint of
 +the copyright notice:
 +   ​Dialogue 128 - Copyright 1991 by Gary Farmaner
 +    I, Gary Farmaner, sole author of the program Dialogue 128, do hereby
 +   ​authorize the release of the program Dialogue 128 and any accompanying
 +   ​documentation,​ to freeware, NON-COMMERCIAL distribution.
 +    Individuals are encouraged to give away, and post to software
 +   ​distribution sites, copies of the software and any electronically captured
 +   form of the documentation,​ as long as this notice is included.
 +    Commercial interests are permitted to distribute the program
 +   and documentation as long as this notice is included, and
 +   NO CHARGE is made beyond reasonable media and duplication costs
 +   (at most $2 for diskette, and $3 for printed documentation).
 +    I retain full copyright on the software and documentation,​
 +   The software and documentation are NOT being released to the public
 +   ​domain. I retain the right to release commercial updates at at future date.
 +   The software is released AS IS, without warranties, guarantees,
 +   or support of any kind.
 +    There is no charge for this software. However, if you do find
 +   it useful I would appreciate reading about it. Drop me a line at:
 +   ​
 +@(A): Back Issues of dieHard Available
 +If you would like to complete your collection of dieHard Magazine, or just
 +want to read an issue or two, the Tresure Valle/ Boise User Group (TV/BUG)
 +is offering issues 11,​12,​13,​18,​19,​20,​21,​22,​and 23 for sale.  If you would like
 +more information on obtaining one or more issues, contact either Brian
 +Crosthwaite at or visit the back issues web page at:
 +@(A): Brush Up On Commodore Knowledge at CKB
 +Cameron Kaiser has created a unique repository for all information Commodore.
 +The Commodore Knowledge Base (CKB) is a repository for documents and Usenet ​
 +postings on repair, technical information and programming the Commodore 8-bits.
 +Since December, CKB has accumulated 130 articles total (more articles ​
 +acquired for storage by newsbot and submission).
 +Some highlights: ​
 + * a complete analysis of interrupts in the 64
 + * the Kernal jump table
 + * why you have to smack the RESTORE key
 + * using 41256 RAM chips in the 64
 + * what to check if your disk drive keeps giving you ?DEVICE NOT PRESENT
 + * programming the CMD hard drive
 + * using ramdisks with CP/M
 + * DIP switch pinouts for the Cardco +G printer interface
 +You can visit the CKB at: http://​​~spectre/​ckb/​
 +@(A): 8BIT Catering to 8 Bit Computing
 +If you're an equal opportunity 8-bit computer collector and/or user, then
 +you'll be interested in 8BIT, a magazine that caters to various older systems,
 +including the Commodore 64, Sinclair, and Amstrad. ​ Althogh not a technical
 +journal, the publication does provide interesting features and information on
 +the various machines still in use.
 +If you would like information on this publication,​ contact:
 +Brian Watson
 +39 High Street
 +CB6 2RA
 +01353 777 0006 (Telephone)
 +01353 77 77 66 (Facsimile) (Internet Email)
 +Magazine Prices were as follows:
 +Single issue: 3 British Pounds
 +Two Years (8 issues): 16 British Pounds
 +@(A): Finally, a PKZIP 2.04 64/128 Unarchiver!
 +Users have requested it, and Error Smith has delivered. ​ Errol has created a
 +dearchiver for the industry standard PKZIP 2.04 format. ​ After years of making
 +do with the PKZIP 1.01 dearchive from Bill Lucier/​David Schmoll, Commodore
 +users can now unzip any PKZIPped file, no matter the version. ​ Don't ditch
 +your old copy of unzip64, though, as Errol'​s new version does not
 +atempt to unzip 1.01 format files. ​ In fact, this issue of Commodore Hacking
 +will be zipped in 2.04 format, because it offers better compression. ​ If you
 +would like to download a copy of unzip64v2, check out Errol'​s WWW site which
 +includes the file and online documentation at:
 +@(#)trick: Hi Tech Trickery: Double Speed Opcodes
 +           by Sean Adams (
 +@(A)intro: Introduction
 +Well, if you have made a bee-line to this section, I hate to disappoint you,
 +    April Fools!
 +Sean Adams, if he did exist, would have no idea how to set the 65XX into a
 +mode that executes all 3+ cycle opcodes twice as fast.  Frankly, it just
 +cannot be done.  All 3+ cycle opcodes need those cycles, and the only way to
 +speed up the process would be to double the clock frequency.
 +So, rest assured that the laws of 65XX operation cannot be broken, at least
 +not in this area.
 +However, before we finish, let me state that the clock doubling approach is
 +precisely how the new Intel CPUs achieve their high numbers. ​ FOr example, the
 +333 MHz Pentium II processor doesn'​t actually run that fast.  First of all, it
 +can only interact with registers at that speed. ​ The high speed cache operates
 +at 1/2 that frequency, or 166.5 MHz.  The cache is only 256kB or 512 kB
 +(although I hear 1MB cache processors are appearing soon), so any function or
 +code fragment that won't fit in that space requires a read from main memory,
 +which runs at 66 MHz at best case (and can run much slower). ​ So, be wary of
 +taking speeds of the newer processors at face value. ​ If we could do to the 64
 +what they do to the Pentium II, we too could have a very fast "​looking"​
 +processor speed.
 +Jim Brain
 +@(#)mags: Hacking the Mags
 +Not everything good and/or technical comes from Commodore Hacking, which
 +is as it should be.  (We still think we have the most, though...) ​ Thus,
 +let's spotlight some good and/or technical reading from the other
 +Commodore publications.  ​
 +Given the large number of publications we're reviewing this time, we've chosen
 +a less conversational approach to highlighting each publications contents.
 +@(A): Commodore World (http://​​cwhome.html)
 +   In CW#16:
 +      Maurice Randall relates an obscure FD/1581 bug and how to work around
 +      it.
 +      John Walker discusses Neural Networks on the C64.
 +      Brett Tabke Introduces the opcoides, registers, and addressing modes of
 +      the 65C816S.
 +      Max Cottrell shows how you can create ANSI Screens.
 +      Gaelyne Gasson goes over file transfers on the Internet.
 +      Maurice Randall details Data File creation on GEOS.
 +      Jim Butterfield goes over the IEC routines in teh PET/CBM.
 +   In CW#17:
 +      Gaelyne Gasson overviews the SuperCPU, and discusses IRC on the
 +      Internet.
 +      Bruce Thomas details how to install a reset switch for your Mouse.
 +      Maurice Randall delves deeper into GEOS data file creation.
 +      Doug Cotton goes over programming optimizations you can use with the
 +      SuperCPU.
 +   In CW#19:
 +      Maurice Randall shows how to mix DA's and Dialogue Boxes in GEOS.
 +      Doug Cotton show how to program the GEOCable outside of GEOS.
 +      Doug Cotton goes over the memory map for the SUPERRAM Card.
 +   In CW#20:
 +      Maurice Randall works with GEOPaint Files.
 +      Mark Fellows details the new Interrupt routines in the SCPU
 +      Doug Cotton shows how to convert a NTSC 64 to PAL or vice versa.
 +   In CW#21:
 +      Doug Cotton goes under the hood on BASIC tokens and storage.
 +      Maurice Randall shows how to get into a GEOWrite document
 +      programmatically.
 +      Mark Fellows details a very impressive ML Input Routine.
 +      Mark Fellows goes over the '816 MVN and MVP move instructions.
 +@(A): Denial
 +   In D#2:
 +      Not much technical content, but I thought the magazine was worthy of
 +      mention simply for catering to the VIC crowd.
 +@(A): Driven (http://​​~coolhnd/​driven/​)
 +      (note the changed WWW address)
 +   In D#17:
 +      Bo Zimmerman discusses his CBM <> Linux <> Internet Setup.
 +   In D#18:
 +      Deathlok discusses various C64 Music Editors
 +   In D#19:
 +      Review of 1996 Issue.
 +   In D#20: 
 +      PAL Magazine Issue.
 +   In D#21:
 +      Sherry Freedline discusses how to surf the Commodore Web.
 +   In D#22:
 +      Announcement of the Driven 4 kB Compo II.
 +   In Driven'​s Waveform Tribute:
 +      A Moving Tribute to John Kaiser, aka Waveform.
 +   In D#23:
 +      Details about The '​Fridge',​ the code repository by Steve Judd.
 +   In D#24:
 +      This issue contains information about Daniel Dallmann'​s SLIP-64.
 +   In D#25:
 +      Kevin Reno details a C64 PPP Project.
 +   In D#26:
 +      Robin Harbron discusses PPP on the 64.
 +      ​
 +@(A): LOADSTAR (http://​
 +   In LS#147:
 +      Adam Vardy shows how to easily put drive swapping code in a program.
 +      Andrew Martin details Hi-Res Sketch II.
 +   In LS#149:
 +      The trio of David Darus, Ken French, and Louis Wallace present Program
 +      Graphics Management (PGM), a toolbox of GFX manipulation code to help
 +      the developer get screens up and going.
 +      Jeff Jones goes over Menu Toolbox, presented in LS and in C=H 14.
 +   In LS#150:
 +      Michael Milroy introduces CAD-M, a 2-D CAD program
 +      Arnold Walters presents 1541-TidyDisk,​ which can clean up 1541 dirs.
 +   In LS#151:
 +      Travis Parker presents VLS HyperText System, a small hypertext reader.
 +      (this is a very impressive program.)
 +      Jeff Jones presents PackMeister,​ a general purpose text packer.
 +      Doreen Horne presents version 3 of WRAPTOR, the GEOS packer.
 +@(A): LOADSTAR 128 (http://​
 +   In LS128#33
 +      Bob Markland present a program for printing Bar Code on mail.
 +   In LS128#34
 +      Nate Fielder brings us GEOCanvas 128.
 +   In LS128#35
 +      Well, I have the issue, but my 1084S died, so I can't view it.  :-(
 +   In LS128#36
 +      Well, I have the issue, but my 1084S died, so I can't view it.  :-(
 +@(A): LOADSTAR LETTER (http://​
 +   In LL#37:
 +      In this first issue after the "​Underground"/"​LL"​ merge, Jeff interviews
 +      Jim Butterfield on the age-old WAIT 6502,X Easter Egg.
 +   In LL#38:
 +      Sherry Freedline goes over the terminology of the Internet.
 +      Jeff Jones goes over the advantages of hybrid BASIC/ML programs.
 +   In LL#39:
 +      Jeff Jones details a way to put more than 144 files on a 1541 disk.
 +      Sherry Freedline discusses choosing an Internet Service Provider.
 +   In LL#40:
 +      Jeff Jones shows how to get the most out of the SCPU optimization modes.
 +      Gaelyne Gasson starts a 2 part series on HTML.
 +      Scott Eggleston shows how to install an "​all-reset"​ reset switch.
 +   In LL#41:
 +      Part 2 of Gaelyne'​s HTML series.
 +      Jeff goes over how to make relocatable code.
 +   In LL#42:
 +      Jeff Jones show how to make good use of the Super Snapshopt Cartridge.
 +   In LL#43:
 +      A CMD Drive Support Issue. ​ Get all your CMD HD/FD/RL questions
 +      answered.
 +   In LL#44:
 +      A CMD SCPU Info Issue.
 +      Robin Harbron details how the 64 and SCPU interact from a timing
 +      perspective.
 +   In LL#45:
 +      Robin Harbron discusses how to use the REU fixed address feature to put
 +      GFX in the border on the screen.
 +   In LL#46:
 +      Robin Harbron details programming the Swiftlink cartridge.
 +      Jeff Jones relates how bigger code isn't always slower code.
 +   In LL#47:
 +      Robin Harbron details a way to test the size of an REU.
 +      Todd Elliott shows some unusual way to use opcodes in the 65XX.
 +   In LL#48:
 +      Robin Harbron details how many cycles you get per scanline on a VIC-II.
 +      Todd Elliott continues his piece on neat uses for 65XX opcodes.
 +   In LL#49:
 +      Robin Harbron goes over CIA IC specifics.
 +   In LL#50:
 +      Hoorah to LOADSTAR for getting 50 issues out!
 +      Robin Harbron goes over the new SUPERRAM card from CMD.
 +      LOADSTAR releases Mr. Mouse (mouse driver) as freeware and details its
 +      use.
 +   In LL#51:
 +      Mostly a reader Q&A issue.
 +   In LL#52:
 +      Robin harbron lists the various types of CBM owners. ​ Figure out which
 +      you are!
 +   In LL#53:
 +      Of particular interest is the discussion in this issue about what
 +      exactly is a "Young Programmer"​.
 +   In LL#54:
 +      Robin Harbron interviews Maurice Randall on Wheel 64.
 +   In LL#55:
 +      A SCPU 128 Issue. ​ Read all about it.
 +@(A): 'Zine 64 (http://​​cholgate/​Zine64/​homepage.htm)
 +   In Z64#7:
 +      A Games/​SuperCPU issue.
 +Other magazines not covered in this rundown include:
 +*  _64'​er_ ​
 +o  _Commodore Gazette_
 +*  _Commodore Network_
 +*  _Commodore Zone_
 +*  _Gatekeeper_
 +o  _Vision_
 +Notes on Legend:
 +* = We have never received an issue of this publication.
 +o = We have not received a new issue of this publication to review.
 ++ = We will begin reviewing this magazine in the next issue.
 +In addition, others exist that C=Hacking is simply not aware of.  As soon
 +as we can snag a copy of any of these, or get the foreign language ones 
 +in English :-), we will give you the scoop on them.  ​
 +@(#)hw: The 40/80 Screen Mouse Switch ​
 +        copyright (c) 1994-1997 by Michael Nausch (
 +Editor Note:  An archive containing this article and the GEOPaint pictures
 +described within it are available in "​Hacking the Code" (Reference: code,
 +SubRef: 4080schematic).
 +@(A): Introduction
 +In 1994, I wrote an article for our club newspaper "​Rundschreiben",​ issue 28 
 +(GEOS Interessengemeinschaft SUED e.V.) describing my "40/80 Screen-Switch" ​
 +hardware extension that allows me to easily switch my monitor between 40 and 
 +80 column modes using the keys on my mouse. After several club members and 
 +friends in the fido-areas and internet-newsgroups asked me if I would sell 
 +the 40/80 Screen-Switch,​ I decided to write this article and translate it to 
 +English. I'd like to thank Gaelyne Gasson, who encouraged me and added the 
 +final touches to the English translation.
 +What this hardware extension will do, and what it won't or can't do:
 + 1. It is not 'plug and play' hardware. You must modify your monitor.
 + 2. It won't automatically switch the mode of your monitor.
 + 3. Because the layout and other plans are in full size GeoPaint format, ​
 +    it should be relatively easy for anyone to build the 40/80 Screen-Switch.
 +@(A): Background Information
 +I built this switch for myself because I was too lazy to press the button on 
 +my monitor to switch it from CVBS (40 column) to RGB (80 column) mode and vice
 +versa. I am a GEOS enthusiast and use GEOS for nearly all my C=128 activities.
 +I use other software only for the internet and bbsing, such as Novaterm, ​
 +Dialogue 128 or QWKRR128. Some of these programs uses both 40 and 80 
 +column-modes,​ too. A lot of my GEOS software runs only in 40 column, so I 
 +am often switching from one mode to the other and vice versa.
 +Most of my software gives me a hint on screen when I should switch my monitor,
 +and I originally considered using the CS input of the video chips and/​or ​
 +converting the CVBS signal to RGB, but both were rejected as too complex or 
 +too expensive. Since my mouse is always at hand, it seemed more practical for 
 +the job.
 +After looking at the circuit diagram of my monitor I thought it should be 
 +easy to do this. First I removed the original switch for changing the 
 +40/80-mode and soldered a 5ft long cable to it for testing, if the monitor ​
 +worked right, (it did) I would carry on with my experiments.
 +Since the first step was done I needed to find a way to comfortably switch ​
 +the monitor modes. I didn't want to alter the mouse, because otherwise I 
 +would have to do it every time I use another mouse. Modifying the keyboard ​
 +seemed impracticable,​ so I decided to make a little "black box" to go between ​
 +the mouse and the monitor.
 +Whenever I pressed both mouse buttons simultaneously I wanted the monitor to 
 +change mode. I dismantled my mouse and looked at what was happening when I 
 +pressed both buttons. I found that when I press the left button, the 
 +'​BUTTON A/LP' line (pin #6) is put to signal-ground. If the right button is 
 +pressed, the line '​JOYA0'​ (pin #1) is put to signal-ground. I also noted 
 +pin #7 had 5V DC, and since I had many chips of the 74xx family in my 
 +electronics parts box, I decided to make the circuit with those IC's.
 +The first IC is a NOR-gate 7402. This gate will only output a "​high"​ if both 
 +inputs are "​low"​. As noted above, if I press both mouse-buttons at the same
 +time, pins #1 and #6 of joy-port #1 are both taken "​low"​ and only then will
 +the NOR-gate output a "​high"​. This output is connected to the next IC, a 
 +monostable multivibrator 74121. The keys of the mouse have an unpleasant
 +property, the bounce. Everyone has probably experienced this; one only has 
 +to copy a GEOS-file, click on the icon and suddenly the file is opened. To 
 +avoid this bounce, if the input of the 74121 IC is set to "​high",​ the output ​
 +changes level only after awhile. If the input changes during this period, ​
 +nothing happens at the output. After the predefined time, the output can be 
 +changed, but it changes the input. This time is dependant on the resistor R3 
 +and the capacitor C1. For the 40/​80Screen-Switch,​ I use approximately 0.6 
 +The output of the 74121 is connected with the clock input of a JK flip-flop ​
 +7473. One of the reasons the external wiring of the 7473 works is because ​
 +it is a D-type flip-flop. So every change to the input will change the output ​
 +of the 7473. With the help of a little NPN-transistor,​ we control a 5V DC 
 +relay. The switch in front of this transistor allows us to switch the 
 +monitor-mode by hand into 40 or 80 column-mode,​ or use the 
 +automatic-operation. Because the JOYA0 and BUTTON A/LP lines are connected ​
 +directly to the keyboard, we must isolate our hardware from the keyboard. ​
 +To do this, we use the pull-up resistors R1 and R2 and diodes V1 and V2.
 +To prevent damage from induced voltage produced by the relay a diode is 
 +connected antiparallel with it's windings.
 +@(A): Constructing the 40/80 screen-switch
 +Enough with the theory, now for the construction. First we must etch the
 +printed board. For printing the included GeoPaint file it's recommended ​
 +that you use a laser-or a true 80x80 dpi printer. If you have not etched ​
 +a printed board, ask a friend to help you. It's also possible to build 
 +the circuit using the wirewrap technique or any other preferred technique. ​
 +After etching and cleaning the printed board, you must drill the holes for 
 +the electronics. After that we bend the 13 little wire-jumpers and solder ​
 +them into the right places. Next we solder the diodes, (check the circuit ​
 +diagram for correct polarity) then the resistors, sockets for the IC'​s, ​
 +the capacitor and then the relay. Finally we connect the on/​off-switch and 
 +the nine-pin sub-d connectors to the 40/80 Screen-Switch. If you use the 
 +special flat cable version of the connectors, you can also use the special ​
 +pin-sockets that were used in the industry and in personal computers. Last 
 +but not least, you are almost ready to test your new hardware.
 +Inspect the printed circuit board and make sure that all solder joints ​
 +are O.K. and there'​s no solder splashes on the board. If everything is 
 +okay you can put the new hardware into a box or stand it on plastic feet. 
 +Connect the 40/80 Screen-Switch between your C=128 and mouse and then 
 +make the connection to your monitor. You can now switch on your computer ​
 +and your monitor. With the double on/off switch you should now be able 
 +to switch your monitor from the CVBS (40 column) to RGB (80 column) mode 
 +and vice versa. If the switch is in "​automatic"​ you should be able to 
 +switch the monitor-mode by pressing both mouse-buttons simultaneously. ​
 +If it doesn'​t work, switch off your equipment and check all solder ​
 +joints, the electronic parts for the right placement and the etched ​
 +printed board for any hairline cracks. Correct any errors and test it 
 +@(A): Note:
 +Do not change the format of this text file and/or the geopaint schematics. ​
 +Use of this document or 40/80 Screen-Switch schematics for any purpose ​
 +other than for personal use requires the consent of the author ​
 +(Michael Nausch). Michael Nausch and Gaelyne Gasson have taken care to 
 +ensure the information presented is correct, and accept no responsibility ​
 +for any damage caused to you or your equipment by use of the circuit ​
 +diagram and information presented in this article. ​
 +@(A): Equipment and parts list
 +     B1 - B13    wire-jumpers
 +     ​C1 ​         capacitor 100 uF 16v
 +     C2 - C4     ​capacitor 100 nF 16v
 +     ​IC1 ​        ​NOR-gate 7402
 +     ​IC2 ​        ​monostable multivibrator 74121
 +     ​IC3 ​        ​JK-flip-flop 7473
 +     ​k15V ​       relay with 2 switches
 +                 (type SDS JW 2 SN 5.0V)
 +     R1 - R2     ​resistor 1.8 k 0.25w
 +     ​R3 ​         resistor 8.2 k 0.25w
 +     ​R4 ​         resistor 330 ohm
 +     V1 - V3     Diode 1N4148
 +     ​V4 ​         NPN-transistor BC107
 +     ​various small parts, like:
 +     three ic-sockets
 +     ​casing
 +     ​nine-pin sub d connectors
 +     ​flatwire-cable
 +     ​copper plated epoxy resin board 3 inch x 5 inch
 +@(#)fido: FIDO's Nuggets
 +          by Geoff Sullivan (
 + ​  ​        
 +In mid October Gaelyne Gasson reported in the CBM Geos Echo on a
 +meeting of the Lansing Area Commodore Club she attended. There Maurice
 +Randall (geoFax, geoShell, etc.) demonstrated new Geos device drivers
 +that work with all types of drives and desktops. He showed drivers
 +that will read an MS-DOS formatted disk directly into Geos, and how a
 +stock 1581 can read a CMD FD disk. This is all part of his goal to
 +revamp the Geos OS, ridding it of bugs, and adding features that
 +would make it more compatable with toady'​s hardware and future
 +software. Since this prewiew the Echo's been buzzing with
 +suggestions and speculations about this development.
 +In the more general topic Commodore Echo there have been a number of
 +discussions that have been ongoing. There has been a thread
 +about 1541 disk drive alignment for some time. There is always one
 +new person that decides his drive has alignment problems and needs
 +advice. I know, this has happened to me too. There are several ways
 +to go about this process and one or another always comes up. Recently
 +there was a very good and complete description of the process.
 +Another thread is covering the baud vs. bps argument, and the limits
 +of data compression with v.42bis protocol. There is a lot of interest
 +in the performance of various modems with Swiftlink on a C64 or 128.
 +Street prices of 14.4 and even 28.8 modems have been dropping to such
 +a degree that performance is more significant than cost since we are
 +no longer resrticted to Commodore compatables. Ismael Cordeiro posted
 +an exhaustive history/​tutorial of modem data transfer schemes. What
 +really seems to determine transfer rates are the types of data used.
 +Plain text, which is easily compressed appears to move faster than
 +compressed data, such as binary files and .GIFs, etc.
 +Software topics have decreased, but FTP by email and other Internet
 +discussions have grown. ​ Many people are now using email to get files
 +from Commodore Web sites all over the world. ​ In fact it is even
 +possible now to receive FIDO Echo packets via FTP if you can't get
 +them any other way!
 +The C128 Echo is a little more into hardware that the other two Echos.
 +In the last few months someone wanted to know how to upgrade his VDC
 +ram to 64K.  There were many answers, all correct. ​ The most
 +important being, "If you don't know what you're doing, get someone
 +who does."
 +Someone else wants to build a portable power supply for his C128 so he
 +can take it on "​remotes"​. ​ The easy soluton would be to use an
 +inverter, but it was suggested that this might be considered
 +cheating. ​ We are a tough lot!!
 +More new folks are showing up on the Commodore FIDO echoes. ​ Some lost
 +souls are returning too.  We keep seeing messages about someone having
 +found a C64 in a closet and wanting to get software or Internet access
 +for it.  In fact there is a lot of Internet related traffic here.
 +Many folks new to Lynx and Unix servers in general are asking
 +questions and getting help.  Those of us that have Commodore related
 +Web sites are able to direct people there for software too.
 +QWKRR is evolving into an Internet friendly off-line reader and reply
 +application. ​ Discussion continues about it.  Presently it centers
 +around REU access and character sets.  Rod Gasson, the author, has
 +been asked to impliment REU support. ​ The problem seems to be that in
 +it's current version QWKRR has no room for it without module swapping.
 +With more of us on the Internet there is some discussion about an
 +application to unzip files zipped with 2.04g and better ways of
 +dealing with .GIF and .JPG files. ​ To date there is nothing that can
 +deal with 2.04g zips directly and viewing .GIF or .JPG graphics could
 +be better. ​ One bright note is that there has been developed an HTML
 +off-line viewer for the C64.  The demo version is on the FairLight Web
 +page at http://​​harlekin/​
 +There is always someone looking for Commodore hardware/​software as
 +well as folks selling it here.  About 1/3 of the traffic on the echoes
 +is devoted to this.
 +Some discussion in the C128 echo has been around character sets and
 +terminal emulation. ​ What are ANSI control characters, how can they be
 +displayed or stripped, and what are the differences between Unix,
 +MS-Dos, Commodore "​screen code", and Petscii text? Several short
 +programs in Basic have appeared to translate text formats.
 +In the Geos echo there has been a thread about the most efficient ways
 +of formatting text in geoWrite. ​ Whether to add tabs and margins
 +before or after composing text seems to be the question. ​ There are
 +some tools for global formatting and font changing, but few use them.
 +Printers are always an interesting challenge in Geos.  With all the
 +used equipment floating around there is always someone here that is
 +having trouble finding the right driver for a newly aquired device.
 +(Note: I think it would be worth it to have an ftp site loaded with
 +all the various non-commercial printer drivers.)
 +With the release of Maurice Randall'​s geoFAX 2.0, at least one user
 +has figured out a way to print geoFAX pages in a pre-determined order
 +by changing the order of the pointers in the Geos VLIR index sector.
 +Each pair of bytes on this page points to the corresponding page of
 +the geoFAX document. ​ By rearranging the order, pages can be printed
 +or displayed any way the user wishes. ​ This may be tedious, but with
 +a little more work an application could be worked up to make this
 +process easier. ​ The same could be done with geoWrite.
 +So, that's a glimpse into the world of FIDO, the wonder dog of networks, ​
 +for this time. 
 +Here, boy.... ​
 +@(#)list: The Canonical List of Commodore Products
 +          by Jim Brain (brain@mail.jbrain
 +@(A): Introduction
 +It's been so long, I almost forget what actually started this list, but I
 +believe I decided one day while at work that I wanted to create a full listing
 +of everything that had made it past the dream phase at Commodore. ​ I wanted to
 +catalog the various models of C64, the constantly evolving C2N datasette, the
 +specifications on the complete PET/CBM business line, etc.  So, I posted what
 +I did know to the USENET comp.sys.cbm newsgroup, and the responses came
 +pouring in.  For a while, the list sported no version number, but I finally
 +started creating versions in 1995.  It's been almost a year since 1.1 came
 +out, and I have made numerous changes to the list since then.  However, the
 +number of computer additions has slowed to a trickle, so I suspect that I've
 +catalogued most of the models out there. ​ Now, people are sending more
 +calculator and specialty Amiga board additions.  ​
 +However, this list has outgrown its current format, and will be converted into
 +a database that I can more easily update and manage. ​ As well, I would like to
 +create an online hyperlinked version that sports pictures and more space for
 +comments on each model. ​ No one realizes that I have to greatly condense the
 +information folks send me on some of these models to fit the space I have
 +here.  The new format will allow more room for neat comments and anecdotes.  ​
 +I will, though, create a script that parses the database to generate this file
 +from the information.  ​
 +So, delete your old copy of the list, and save this one for future reference.
 +If I have erred in some information,​ please take the opportunity to send me
 +corrections,​ and note the locations of the file below. ​ I continually update
 +the file, and you can check in VICUG at http://​​vicug/​ for
 +information on where the online HTML version will be kept.
 +Without further ado, its the:
 +@(A): CBM List of Products
 +Archive-name:​ cbm-model-list.2.0.txt
 +Version: 2.0
 +Last-modified:​ 1998-04-11
 +Here is the newest edition of the Canonical List of Commodore Products. ​ It
 +contains informations on every piece of Commodore equipment I have heard of 
 +to date.  Please help me weed out all the inconsistencies and nail down all
 +the information.
 +==========================Notes for this Release==============================
 +PET models were also named with CBM prefixes. i.e PET 4016 = CBM 4016.
 +Difference in naming early PETs exist. ​ A PET 2001-8N could also be
 +referred to as a PET 2001N-8K or PET 2001N-8. ​ All are the same machine.
 +Since the decision to boot in lowercase or uppercase mode was based on
 +type of ROM, any machine can boot in either. ​
 +If you know of a model that is listed above that had differing properties,
 +please tell me.  Examples are a bigger monitor than what I have listed,
 +Different closing mechanism on Drive, etc.  ​
 +This list comprises all machines that have been put out in some market.
 +For this reason, the 364, C65, and others are include in the second
 +list at the end of this document.
 +The stars indicate that someone has seen this machine in production.
 +Their friends own one, etc.
 +The two letters at far right indicate that someone owns this machine.
 +The names are in Mnemonic, and the expansions are directly above these 
 +Before emailing me with updates to an item, please make sure the item number ​
 +is not alrady in the list.  Sometimes I have people tell me that X is a 
 +disk drive, when X is in the list already as something else.  I can't tell
 +which one is right, so if you find contradictory info, please acknowledge
 +that your info does not match mine and what your opinion is regarding which
 +info is correct.
 +Any item that has letters after it in the far right column not only exists,
 +but is owned by someone. ​ Now, a typo is always possible, but please keep
 +that in mind when telling me an item was never made, since Commodore ​
 +sometimes never marketed an item in some countries.
 +I put in any item that I think _might_ have made it to market, so everyone
 +needs to continually check up on me.  ​
 +There list is in two parts: Marketed and Not-Marketed,​ since some models
 +were produced but never sold at the time of production (C65 is one of them),
 +and some models never got past the "​pipe-dream"​ stage.
 +The newest version of this file can be retrieved from:
 +   Body:
 +      open
 +      ascii
 +      get /​pub/​cbm/​ref/​cbm-model-list.txt
 +      quit
 +Interested persons can now subscribe to the CBMMODEL Mailing List at:
 +   Body:
 +      subscribe model-dist Firstname Lastname msglen
 +      review model-dist
 +      help
 +      quit
 +Note: msglen is maximum number of text lines you can receive in an 
 +email messsage. ​ a value of 0 means maxlines. ​ All parameters to the
 +subscribe command are necessary. ​ The newest version of the list will be
 +mailed to you when posted to the newsgroup.
 +I hope you enjoy the list.  It is the result of over 4 years of continual
 +Jim Brain
 +======================Questions Still Left to Answer==========================
 +The PET 2001NT: ​ Which PET 2001 was it, 08,16,32?
 +Some needs to explain to me why the 700 model is an LP machine when the rest
 +of the 700 line are HP machines....
 +ony Scatt sent me some discussion about the CBM 3000 model, mentioning an 11
 +key keyboard variant and a 20 key kaeyboard variant. ​ I have noted below that
 +some 3000 machines were simply rebaded 2001 machines. ​ Does that explain the
 +11/20 discrepency?​
 +I need to go through Andre Fachat'​s PET Index and synchronize information,​
 +but I need time to do so.   You can peruse it at
 +===========Canonical List of Commodore Computer Equipment ====================
 +  ​      ​  ​        ​   ​
 +---------------------Products Produced In Some Quantity:​----------------------
 +Office Equipment:
 +* 264CD         ​Office Desk                                                 RS
 +Calculator Series:
 +* 202           ​electric,​ 1 digit display with slider indiciator, ​
 +                black case, white keypad, black,​white,​red keys SN B-63768 ​  WW
 +* 208           ​mechanical tape calc with red/black ribbon. ​                MI
 +*               Blue LEDs, basic math, cream color, blue/red butons. ​       TA
 +*               ​Scientific calc, made in England, 44 extra keys             BD
 +* 401           paper readout, darkgreen/​bluegreen ​                         DV
 +  770D
 +* 774D          Red LED, 9 digit, white keys.  Red clear and blue op keys.  BA
 +  776M
 +* 796M          red LED, 8 digit, black plastic, 19 keys                    JR
 +* 797D          Red LED, basic math+memory and percentage, cream/blk keys   BD
 +* 797M          red LED, 8 digit, cream plastic, 23 keys.  ​   JB
 +* 886D          8 dig red LED, white case, keys white, blue and 1 red       GY
 +* 886D          lt brown w/dark brown base, keys white, blue and red        GY
 +* 887D          8 dig Red LED, white, black trim, white, red, blue keys.    RI
 +* 897D          10 digit Red LED, basic math, percent, one memory. ​         GK
 +* AL-1000 ​      14 nixie tube readout ​                                      
 +* C108          green LED, basic math, black, colored buttons ​              DV
 +* CIL 40        LCD, 8 digit, "​electronic switching",​ cream / brown metal   JR
 +                case, CMOS slimline, 23 keys, 198?
 +* CQ-SWAT ​      ​yellow LCD dual display, 8 digit, world time, silver metal  JR
 +                case, CMOS slimline, 30 keys.
 +* GL-976M ​      green LED, 7 digit, white / black plastic case, 19 lrg keys.JR
 +  GL-976MR
 +  GL-979R ​      ​blk-cream case,​Colored buttons,​green LED,basic calc+mem+x^2 ​
 +* GL-987R ​      8 dig grn LED, blk w/silver trim, wht,red,blu keys basic    BZ
 +* GL-996R ​      ​rechargeable,​ green LED, 8 digit, b&w plastic case, 23 key  JR
 +                similar to GL models, early LCD.  ​    
 +* GL-997R ​      ​blk-cream case,​colored buttons,​green LED,basic calcs+memory TE
 +* LC5K1         ​yellow LCD, 8 digit, gold/brown metal case, 24 keys, CMOS   JR
 +                slimline.
 +* LC925         ​yellow LCD, 8 digit, brown/cream plastic case, 25 keys,     JR
 +* LC5K2                                                                     JC
 +* MM3M          Cream, Colored buttons, Red LED readout, basic math, 1 mem. JB
 +* MM3M (Conv) ​  MM3M with Volume, Area, Metric Conversions ​                 JP
 +* MM3R          MM3M without memory. ​ SN#​066387 ​                            PE
 +* MM6           ​blk-silver case,basic calcs,red LED,​switchable dec point,
 +                9V battery ​                                                 TE
 +* MM6X          MM6 with enter key                                          LA
 +* N60           14 dig grn LED, silver nums, blue func, lt-blu mem, navigat WZ
 +* N80           10 dig LED, white nums, blue func, lt-blu mem, navigational FR
 +* P50 Program. ​ red LED, 13 digit, brown/gold plastic, 49 keys              JR
 +* S61 Statist. ​ green LED, 14 digit, black plastic case, 60 keys.           JR
 +* SR-1400 ​      "​Electronic Slide Rule Calculator"​ may 5, 1975              JS
 +* SR-1800 ​      ​Black,​ Colored buttons, Green LED readout, Trig.            FB
 +* SR-36 Scient. red LED, 13 digit, black plastic, 37 keys                   JR
 +* SR4912 LED, 13 digit, black plastic, 49 keys                   JR
 +* SR-9190R ​     Black, 10 Red LED, 49 keys, white num keys, SN#​26612. ​      RI
 +* SR-4120R ​     SR-4148R ​                                                   TE
 +* SR-4148R ​     blk case,​colored buttons(48),​10 red LED,
 +                basic calc+memory+trig+x^y+statistics  ​                   TE
 +* SR-100NC ​     black case,49 colored buttons (most of them twice used),
 +                scientific calcs (was originally sold as QUELLE Privileg ​
 +                but is from Commodore) ​                                     TE
 +* US*3          8 dig + sign, larger light brown case, blk num keys, basic  BZ
 +* US*8          Desk model, 8 amber LED & overflow,​black,​keys wht,​blu,​red ​  GY
 +  ​    
 +Video Game Series:
 +* CBM 2000K     ​Commodore TV Game 2000K, ​                                   JR
 +                Basically same as CBM 3000H, but with 4 '​bats',​ two internal
 +                and 2 mini-jacks in back.  PAL output. ​ Black plastic case.
 +* CBM 3000H     ​Commodore TV Game 3000H, ​                                   LJ
 +                Pong-type game. Labels in English and German, Games include
 +                "​target",​ "​tennis",​ "​football",​ "​squash"​. Amateur or Pro
 +                settings, 1-4 player. ​ Basic pot bats, bat #1 is built into
 +                unit. Runs on 9VDC or batteries. ​ Outputs to UHF36. 2 ports
 +                at rear. One 5 pin DIN for light rifle (lightpen), other
 +                for two more bats. PAL output.
 +Trainer Series:
 +* KIM-1         ​Computer Trainer: ​ Has hex keypad and LED readout ​          CK
 +PET 2000 Series:​Renamed to CBM 20XX, XX = RAM, when Philips forbid PET use.
 +                Most CBM renamed units powered up in lowercase and had a 
 +                different keyboard config, while the PET machines booted in
 +                uppercase. B and N notation alternately put after RAM amount
 +                in name (PET 2001B-32 = PET 2001-32B)
 +                Black (B) or Blue (N) Trim, 9" (9) or 12" (2) screen,
 +                Built-In Cassette with Chiclet Keys (C),
 +                Business Style Keyboard with No Graphics on Keys (K), or
 +                Home Computer with Number Keys and Graphics on Keys (H),
 +                Green/White screen (G) or Black/White screen (W)     
 +* PET 2001-4K ​  4kB, CB                                                     GP
 +* PET 2001-8K ​  8kB, CN9                                                    GP
 +* PET 2001-8C ​  8kB, CN9W, SN#0620733, No "WAIT 6502,​X" ​                    GL
 +* PET 2001-8C ​  8kB, CB9G, SN#0629836, No "WAIT 6502,​X" ​                    GL
 +  PET 2001-16K ​ 16kB, CN9  ​   ​
 +  PET 2001-32K ​ 32kB, CN9
 +  PET 2001B-8 ​  8kB, K2
 +  PET 2001B-16 ​ 16kB, K2
 +  PET 2001B-32 ​ 32kB, BK9W, boots in lowercase ​                             RB
 +  PET 2001B-32 ​ 32kB, K2         ​
 +  PET 2001N-8 ​  8kB, H2
 +* PET 2001N-16 ​ 16kB, H9                                                    CH
 +  PET 2001N-16 ​ 16kB, H2
 +* PET 2001N-32 ​ 32kB, H, BASIC 4.0,                                         CS
 +* PET 2001NT ​   Teacher'​s PET.  Same as 2001N, just rebadged
 +* MDS 6500      Modified 2001N-32 with matching 2040 drive. ​ 500 made.      GP
 +CBM 3000 Series: 40 Col. Screen, BASIC 2.0-2.3, Same Board as Thin 4000
 +                 3001 series in Germany were just 2001's with big Keyboard.
 +* CBM 3008      8kB, 9" Screen. ​                                            EG
 +* CBM 3016      16kB 
 +* CBM 3032      32kB.                                                       SL
 +CBM 4000 Thin Series: 9" Screen, 40 Column Only, Basic 4.0.
 +CBM 4000 Fat Series: ​ 12" Screen, Upgradeable to 80 Column, When upgraded
 +                      to 80 Columns, the systems were 8000'​s. ​
 +  CBM 4004      4kB, One Piece.
 +* CBM 4008      8kB, One Piece. ​                                            SF
 +* CBM 4016      16kB, One Piece. ​                                           KK
 +* CBM 4032      32kB, One Piece                                             JB
 +* CBM 4064      Educator 64 in 40XX case. green screen (no Fat option) ​     GP
 +CBM 8000 Series:​12"​ Screen, 80 Column, BASIC 4.0
 +                SK means "​SoftKey",​ or "​Separated Keyboard" ​ All -SK and d
 +                units were enclosed in CBM 700/B series HP cases.
 +  CBM 8008      8kB, One Piece
 +  CBM 8016      16kB, One Piece
 +* CBM 8032      32kB, One Piece                                             GP
 +* CBM 8032-32 B 8032 in Higher Profile case (HP).  Could install LP drives. GP
 +* CBM 8032 SK   32kB, Detached Keyboard, SK = SoftKey or Separated Keyboard.EG
 +  CBM 8096      96kB, 8032 with 64kB ram card
 +* CBM 8096 SK   96kB, Detached Keyboard.
 +* CBM 8096d     8096 + 8250LP ​                                              SL
 +* CBM 8296      128kB, Detached Keyboard, Brown like 64, LOS-96 OS          TL
 +* CBM 8296d     8296 + 8250LP ​                                              SL
 +* "​CASSIE" ​     Synergistics Inc. rebadged 8032                             AH
 +  ​
 +SuperPet Series:Sold in Germany as MMF (MicroMainFrame) 9000
 +                Machines sold in Italy had 134kB of RAM.
 +* CBM SP9000 ​   Dual uP 6502/6809, 96kB RAM, business keyboard. ​            GP
 +CBM B Series: ​  6509 @ 2MHz, 6545/6845 Video, 6526 CIA, 6581 SID, BASIC 4.0+
 +                (Sometimes called BASIC 4.5)
 +                Commodore differentiated between the HP (High Profile) and 
 +                LP (Low Profile) series by naming all HP machine CBM.
 +                (B128-80HP was CBM128-80). ​ Also, any machine with optional
 +                8088 CPU card had '​X'​ after B or CBM (BX128-80).
 +* CBM B128-80HP 128kB, Detached Keyboard, Cream. ​                           GP
 +* CBM B128-80LP 128kB, One-Piece, Cream, New Keyboard. ​                     GP
 +* CBM B256-80HP 256kB, Detached Keyboard, Cream.
 +* CBM B256-80LP 256kB, One-Piece, Cream. ​                                   GP
 +* CBM B128-40 ​  6567, 6581, 6509, 6551, 128kB. ​ In B128-80LP case.
 +  CBM B256-40 ​  6567, 6581, 6509, 6551, 256kB. ​ In B128-80LP case.
 +* CBM B500      128kB. ​                                                     KO
 +* CBM B500      256kB. board same as B128-80. ​                              GP
 +CBM 200 Series  ​    ​  ​
 +* CBM 200       CBM 8032 SK                                                 VM
 +  CBM 210       ???
 +* CBM 220       CBM 8096 SK
 +CBM 500 Series: 6509, 6567, 6581, 6551. B series LP case, BASIC 4.0+
 +                Sometimes called PET II series.  ​
 +* CBM 500       ​256kB. (is this the 500, or should it 515?)                 EC
 +* CBM 505       64kB.
 +* CBM 510       ​128kB.
 +CBM 600 Series: Same as B series LP
 +* CBM 610       ​B128-80 LP                                                  CS
 +* CBM 620       ​B256-80 LP                                                  CS
 +CBM 700 Series: Same as B series HP.  Also named PET 700 Series
 +* CBM 700       ​B128-80 LP (Note this unit is out of place here)
 +* CBM 710       ​B128-80 HP                                                  SL
 +* CBM 720       ​B256-80 HP                                                  GP
 +* CBM 730       720 with 8088 coprocessor card
 +  CBM 740       ????
 +  CBM 750       ????
 +  CBM 760       ???? 3 processors and 1 MB RAM.
 +VIC-20 Series: ​ 22*23 screen, 5kB RAM,  Basic 2.0, one piece. ​
 +                Could be hooked to TV with RF modulator.
 +                Cream (C), or Off-White (O) case.
 +                Flat top keys with Square type font on keycaps (S),
 +                Indent top keys with somewhat square font and thin letters
 +                for RESTORE/​CLR/​HOME/​INST... (I), or
 +                Indent top keys with rounded type font (R).
 +                2 Prong PS adaptor (2) or DIN PS adaptor (D).
 +                Black/​Silver Decals (B), or Brown/Color Decals (H).
 +                5 pin video connector (5), or 8 pin video connector (8)
 +                "​2"​ implies VIC-20 motherboard. ​ "​D"​ implies VIC-20CR ​
 +                motherboard. ​    
 +* VIC-20 1      SOB2                                                        GP
 +* VIC-20 2      ICHD                                                        GP
 +* VIC-20 3      ROB2                                                        GP
 +* VIC-20 4      RCHD8                                                       JB
 +* VIC-20 5      SCHD                                                        JB
 +* VIC-20 6      VIC with 2001K Keyboard. ​                                   MS
 +* VIC-20 7      RCBD5                                                       SD
 +* VIC-20 8      CS2B5                                                       RN
 +* VIC-20 9      CI2B5                                                       RN
 +* VIC-20 10     ​CIH25 ​                                                      BZ
 +* VIC-20 11     ​ROBD5 ​                                                      BZ
 +* VIC-10 ​       Japanese VIC with 2001K keyboard.  ​    
 +* VIC-1001 ​     VIC-10? Japanese VIC with both chars printed on keys.       TG
 +* VC-20 1       SCHD5 (German) (source says has beige instead of grey? case)
 +* VC-20 2       RCHD5 (German) ​                                             MH
 +* VC-20 3       R5OB2 (German) Color VIC logo... ​                           CE
 +* VC-20 4       HD (cheap label) (German) ​                                  RC
 +* VC-20 5       HD (better aluminum label) (German) ​                        RC
 +* VC-20 6       2 (UK)                                                      RC
 +      ​    
 +CBM-64 Series: ​ 40*25 screen, 64kB RAM, BASIC 2.0, one piece, TV ouput.
 +                Called VIC-64 in Sweden.
 +                Off-white VIC case (O), Brown Breadbox case (B),
 +                Cream Breadbox case (C)
 +                Flat top keys with Square type font on keycaps (S),
 +                Indent top keys with somewhat square font and thin letters
 +                for RESTORE/​CLR/​HOME/​INST... (I), or
 +                Indent top keys with rounded type font (R).
 +                Black/​Silver Decals (L), or Brown/Color Decals (H).
 +                5 pin video connector (5), or 8 pin video connector (8)
 +                ​
 +* CBM 64 1      SO
 +* CBM 64 2      SBH8                                                        JB
 +* CBM 64 3      RBH8                                                        JB
 +* CBM 64 4      RCH8 (Referred to as a C64G)                                ME
 +* CBM 64 5      RB5L                                                        JB
 +* CBM 64 (JP)   ​Chiclet Keyboard sold in Japan. (Might be MAX Machine)
 +* Jubilee 64    64 in Golden case, announcing 1,000,000 units (160 units)
 +* SX-64         ​Portable 64 With 5" Color Screen, One 1541 Built-in. ​       GP
 +* CBM-64C ​      Cream Sloping Case, Cream Keys, GFX on front of keys        JB
 +* CBM-64C ​      Cream Sloping Case, Cream Keys, GFX on top of keys.         JB
 +  CBM-64II ​     C64C
 +* Educator 64-1 64 Rev1 Kernal without monitor in 64 case.                  RS
 +* Educator 64-2 64 Rev1 Kernal, green monitor, PET case.                    GP
 +* PET64         CBM 4064 (Educator 64-2)                                    GP
 +* (Color) MAX   64 with 16kB, no Keyboard, just Exp. Port and Video Out.    EC
 +  Unimax ​       MAX Machine.
 +* Ultimax ​      MAX Machine. ​                                               FH
 +  CBM VC-10     C-64 with stripped down Basic 2.0, 2.5kB RAM, Ultimax
 +* CBM C64G      RCH8                                                        AA
 +* CBM C64GS     Game Console, GS = Game System. 64 with no keyboard. ​       MM
 +C-128 Series: ​  ​128kB,​ Cream Case, 40*25 and 80*25 screen, 64 and CP/M em.
 +* C-128         ​One-Piece Unit, 16kB VDC.                                   GP
 +* C-128         ​One-Piece Unit, 64kB VDC.
 +* C-128D ​       Two-Piece,​16K VDC, Used C128 board, internal 1571. Fan
 +* C-128DCR ​     C128D with 64K VDC, Metal Case, Cost Reduced, No Fan.       DL
 +CBM 264 Series: Charcoal Grey Case, 40*25 screen
 +* Plus/​4 ​       New Keyboard and Case design, 64kB RAM, 6551 UART           GP
 +* C-16          64 Case and Keyboard Style, 16kB RAM                        JB
 +* C-116         C-16 with Chiclet keys and smaller case                     SL
 +Amiga Series: ​  680X0 processor, Off White Case
 +* A500          One piece, 68000, Off-White, 880K 3.5" Floppy ​              FF
 +* A500+         A500 + 2MB Agnus, 1MB Chip Ram Expandable to 2 MB
 +* A600          One piece, 68000, White,ECS Chips,​PCMCIA Slot,880K Floppy.
 +* A600HD ​       A600 with 40 MB HD.
 +* A1000         ​Detached Keyboard, 68000, Cream, 256kB, 880K Floppy.
 +* A1000-1 ​      ​Detached older style keyboard, 68000, no daughterboard ​     CS
 +* A1000-2 ​      Has both daughter and motherboards ​                         YC
 +* A1200         ​White,​ 68EC020, PCMCIA slot,AGA graphics, one piece. ​       AC
 +  A1200HD/​40 ​   A1200 with 40 MB HD.
 +* A1500         UK released A2000 with two drives
 +* A2000A ​       detached keyboard, slots, 68000, .5 MB on board, .5 MB on
 +                card in processor slot, German design
 +* A2000B ​       US design, 1 MB on motherboard,​ CPU slot free               MN
 +* A2000HD ​      A2000 with installed 50 MB SCSI hard disk.                  GR
 +* A2500/​20 ​     A2000 with A2620(68020,​68881,​68851 @14.3MHz) processor card.CS
 +* A2500/​30 ​     A2000 with A2630(68030,​68882 @25 MHz) processor card.       CS
 +* A2500UX ​      A2500 with UNIX and TapeDrive
 +* A3000/​16 ​     ECS graphics, 68030 and 68881 @ 16 MHz, SCSI hard drive
 +* A3000/​25 ​     ECS graphics, 68030 and 68882 @ 25 MHz, SCSI hard drive     BZ
 +* A3000T ​       Tower Case with more slots.
 +* A3000T/​40 ​    Tower Case with more slots and 68040
 +* A3000UXA ​     A3000 with ATT Unix V.4, 5MB RAM, 100MB HD.
 +* A3000UXB ​     A3000 with ATT Unix V.4, 10MB RAM, 200MB HD.
 +* A4000/​030 ​    AGA graphics, 68EC030, IDE HD, 1.76 MB Floppy, no MMU.
 +* A4000/​040 ​    ​White,​ AGA graphics, 68040, IDE HD, 1.76 MB Floppy. ​        FF
 +* A4000T ​       Tower Case with More Slots.
 +* Amiga CD32    Based on A1200, double speed CD-ROM, no keyboard.
 +* CDTV          Black case, based on A500+ with CD-ROM, no keyboard, Remote.FF
 +PC Series:
 +* A1060         ​DOS/​PC SideCar that connects to an A1000.
 +* A2088         8088 BridgeBoard for A2000 and higher (4.77 MHz).
 +* A2088D ​       A2088 @ 9.54 MHz.
 +* A2286/​8 ​      80286 @ 8MHz BridgeCard.
 +* A2386/​16 ​     80386 @ 16MHz BridgeCard.
 +* A2386/​20 ​     80386 @ 20MHz BridgeCard.
 +* A2386/​25 ​     80386 @ 25MHz BridgeCard.
 +  Hyperion ​     PC Clone. ​ Looked like Dynalogic Hyperion
 +* PC-1          8088 @ 4.77 MHz, Non-expandable.
 +  PC-IV         ???
 +* PC-5          8088 @ 4.77 MHz, 256kB RAM, 360kB 5.25" FD, monochrome. ​    SL
 +* PC-10         8088 @ 4.77 MHz, 256kB RAM, 2 Floppies, Large Case, German.
 +* PC-10 HD      PC-10 with 640kB RAM, 360kB 5.25" FD, 30 MB HD.
 +* PC-20         PC-10 with 1 Floppy/1 10MB HD.                              RS
 +* PC-30         80186 (US only)                                             RS
 +* PC-40         80286 @ 10 MHz, Large Case                                  RS
 +* PC-50         ​80386SX @ 25MHz. ​                                           RS
 +* PC-60         ​80386DX @ 16 MHz German.
 +* PC-70         ​Pentium,​ US only model.
 +* PC-10 II      PC-10 with "​Combined Board",​ 640 KB RAM.                    BZ
 +* PC 20-II      PC-10 II with 1 floppy, 10 MB HD, later 20 MB.
 +* PC 10-III-1 ​  ​PC-10,​ large case, CGA + Hercules.
 +* PC 10-III-2 ​  ​PC-10,​ small case, turbo mode 9.54 MHz, CGA + Hercules.
 +* PC 20-III ​    PC-10 III with 1 floppy, 20 MB HD.
 +* PC 30-III ​    ​cheaper variant of PC 40-III (EGA, smaller HD, etc.).
 +* PC 35-III ​    PC-30 III with VGA
 +* PC 40-III-1 ​  AT with 80286, 12 MHz, HD floppy, 20 MB HD, VGA&iO on cards 
 +* PC 40-III-2 ​  PC 40-III, Colt style "​all-in-one"​ brd, called Sel. Ed. 286 RM
 +* PC 40-III-3 ​  PC 40-III in tower case.  ​    
 +* PC 45-III ​    a bit bigger HD
 +* PC 60-III ​    AT 80386 @ 25 MHz, 0-200 MB HD, 5.25" and 3.5" FD, Tower.
 +* PC Colt       ​Denoted a line of rebadged CBM PC units. ​                   BZ
 +  SL 286 AT     80286 @ 16 MHz, VGA, 2MB RAM, 40 MB HD, 3.5" FD, Slimline.
 +  SL 286 AT     as above but with extra 5.25" FD, Slimline.
 +  SL 386 SX     ​80386SX @ 16 MHz, VGA, 2MB RAM, 40 MB HD, 3.5" FD.
 +  SL 386-SX25 ​  ​80386SX @ 25 MHz, SVGA 2MB RAM, 80 MB HD.
 +  DT 386-25 ​    ​80386DX @ 25 MHz, VGA, 1MB RAM, 40 MB HD, Desktop.
 +  DT 386-33 C   ​80386DX @ 33 MHz, SVGA, 4MB RAM, 80/100 MB HD.
 +  DT 486-33 C   ​80486DX @ 33 MHz, SVGA, 4MB RAM, 80-120 MB HD.
 +  DT 486SX-25 ​  ​80486SX @ 25 MHz, SVGA, 4MB RAM, 80 MB HD.
 +* DT 486SX-25 ​  ​80486SX @ 25 MHz, SVGA, 4MB RAM, 120 MB HD.                 DA
 +  DT 486-25 C   ​80486DX @ 25 MHz, SVGA?, 4MB RAM, 100 MB HD.
 +  T 486-25 C    DT 486-25 C in Tower Case.
 +  T 486-50 C    80486DX @ 50 MHz, SVGA, 4MB RAM, 120 MB HD.
 +* C 286 LT 12   80286 @ 12.5 MHz, 1MB RAM, 20 MB HD, 3.5" FD Notebook.
 +* C 386SX-LT ​   80386SX @ 16 MHz, VGA (8 gray scale), 1 MB RAM, 20MB HD     SA
 +* C 386SX-LT 20 80386SX @ 20 MHz, VGA, 2MB RAM, 40 MB HD Notebook.  ​    
 +* C 386SX-LT 20 80386SX @ 20 MHz, VGA, 2MB RAM, 60 MB HD Notebook.
 +* C 486SX-CLT ​  ​80486SX color notebook.
 +* CL450e ​       80486DX @ 50 MHz, 32 bit EISA bus, SN# E4500007 ​            JO
 +* 4S3MPC ​       80486SX @ 33 MHz, VESA SVGA, 4MB RAM, 170 MB HD, *2 CD/​Snd ​  
 +Cassette Series:Took regular cassettes, non standard format data.
 +                Note: 1530 is same as C2N.  Therefore, variations were not
 +                expanded.
 +* CBM C2N-1     ​Black,​ 8.00"​Lx5.25"​Wx2.50"​H,​ 5 button, No Tape Ctr.         GP
 +* CBM C2N-2     Cream C2N-1, Tinted Window, Tape Counter. ​                  JB
 +* CBM C2N-3     C2N-2 with bolder logo.                                     GP
 +* CBM C2N-4     ​Cream,​ 6.00"​Lx7.75"​Wx2.00"​H,​ 6 button,​Clear Win., Tape Ctr. GP
 +* CBM C2N-5     C2N-4 with no counter label, orange under cassette. ​        GP
 +* CBM C2N-6     C2N-4 with no save label, bolder logo.                      GP
 +* CBM C2N-7     C2N-4 with tinted win., bolder logo.                        BG
 +* CBM 1531      Charcoal Grey C2N-6, Commodore 16/+4 Cassette Drive         TH
 +* CBM Load-It ​  LED Readout, Adjustment Screw
 +Disk Drive Series:
 +* Amiga 1010    Single 3.5" 880K, offered for Amiga 1000, AmigaSerial. ​     MJ
 +* Amiga 1011    Single 3.5" 880K, offered for Amiga 500 & 2000, AmigaSerial.JM
 +* Amiga 1020    Single 5.25", 440K Amiga, 360K MS-DOS, In 1571 Case.        CS
 +* Amiga 2010    Single 3.5", 880K Internal for A2000/2500.
 +* Amiga 2020    Single 5.25", 440K Internal for A2000.
 +* Amiga 3010    Single 3.5", 1.76M Dual Speed, internal.
 +* CBM 1541      *All types, see VIC 1541*
 +* CBM 1541C     ​Single 5.25" 170K, updated 1541, Brown, Turn-Down,​Serial.
 +* CBM 1541C     ​Single 5.25" 170K, updated 1541, Cream, Turn-Down,​Serial. ​  GP
 +* CBM 1541C     ​Single 5.25" 170K, updated 1541, Cream, Push-Down,​Serial. ​  GP
 +* CBM 1541 II   ​Single 5.25" 170K, Cream, Sep. PS, Direct Drive, Serial. ​   GP
 +* CBM 1541 II   ​Single 5.25" 170K, Cream, Sep. PS, Belt Drive, Serial. ​     JB
 +* CBM 1542      Single 5.25" 170K, Charcoal Grey, Serial.
 +* CBM 1551      1541, Push-Down Closure, Chacoal Grey, TED Parellel. ​       RJ
 +* CBM 1551      1541, Turn-Down Closure, Chacoal Grey, TED Parellel. ​       PB
 +* CBM 1570      Single 5.25" SS Version of 1571, Cream in 1541 case.        GP
 +* CBM 1571      Single 5.25" 340K(128),​170K(64),​CPM,​Cream,​Alps Mech,​Serial. GP
 +* CBM 1571      Single 5.25" 340K(128),​170K(64),​CPM,​Cream,​NewT Mech,​Serial. GP
 +* CBM 1571CR ​   Internal 1571 used in C128D
 +* CBM 1572      Dual 1571, Cream color, 5000 made, side-by-side device 0&​1 ​
 +* CBM 1581      Single 3.5" 800K, Cream, Serial. ​                           JB
 +* CBM 2020      dual ???" external floppy drives ​                           LI
 +* CBM 2031      Single 5.25" 170K, Off-White, IEEE-488. ​                    GP
 +* CBM 2031-SL ​  ​Single 5.25" 170K, Off-White, IEEE-488. (SL = Slim Line)
 +* CBM 2031 LP   ​Single 5.25" 170K, DOS2.6, Off-White, 1541 Case,​IEEE-488. ​  GP
 +* CBM 2031 LP   ​Single 5.25" 170K, DOS2.6, Tan, 1541 Case,​IEEE-488. ​        GP
 +* CBM 2040      Dual 5.25" 170K, DOS1.0, Off-White, No Rel Files, IEEE-488. GP
 +* CBM 2040      Dual 5.25" 170K, DOS1.2, Off-White, No Rel Files, IEEE-488. GP
 +* CBM 2081      Single 5.25" ?????                               
 +* CBM 3040      2040.                                                       GP
 +* CBM 4031 HP   2031 HP. (Has 4040 Mechanism) ​                              SL
 +* CBM 4031 LP   2031 LP.
 +* CBM 4040      Dual 5.25" 170K, DOS2.0, Off-White, IEEE-488.
 +* CBM 4040      Dual 5.25" 170K, DOS2.1, Off-White, IEEE-488. ​              GP
 +* CBM 8050      Dual 5.25" 512K, DOS2.1, Off-White, IEEE-488.
 +* CBM 8050      Dual 5.25" 512K, DOS2.5, Off-White, IEEE-488. ​              GP
 +* CBM 8050      Dual 5.25" 512K, DOS2.7, Off-White, IEEE-488. ​              JB
 +  CBM 8060      Single 8", 750K, Off-White, IEEE-488.
 +* CBM 8061      Dual 8", 1.6M, Off-White, IEEE-488.(IBM 3740 and CBM format)GP
 +* CBM 8062      Dual 8", 3.2M, Off-White, IEEE-488.(IBM 3740 and CBM format)
 +* CBM 8250      Dual 5.25" 1MB, DOS2.7, Off-White, IEEE-488. ​               GP
 +* CBM 8250 LP   Dual 5.25" 1MB, DOS2.7, Off-White, Half Height, IEEE-488. ​  GP
 +* CBM 8280      Dual 8" 1MB, DOS3.0, Off-White, Read IBM disks, Slimline. ​  WA
 +* CBM D9060     5 MB Hard Drive, DOS3.0, Off-White, IEEE-488. ​              GP
 +* CBM D9090     7.5 MB Hard Drive, DOS3.0, Off-White, IEEE-488. ​            GP
 +* CD 1411       Black version of Amiga 1011. CDTV dedicated.
 +* PC 910        Single 3.5" 360K/720K, Internal for PC10/​20-I-II-III.
 +* PC 915        Newer 910.
 +* PC 920        Single 5.25" 360K/1.2M, Internal for PC10/​20-I-II-III.
 +* SFD 1001      Single 5.25" 1MB, In 1541 Case, DOS2.7, Brown, IEEE-488. ​   JB
 +* SFS 481       CBM 1551. (This was its first number, then they renamed it)
 +* VIC 1540      Single 5.25" 170K, Off-White, Xfer spd > 1541, Serial.
 +* VIC 1541      Single 5.25" 170K, Push-Down Closure, Off-White, Serial ​    JB
 +* VIC 1541      Single 5.25" 170K, Push-Down Closure, Brown, Serial. ​       JB
 +* VIC 1541      Single 5.25" 170K, Turn-Down Closure, Brown, Serial. ​       JB
 +Printer Series:
 +* CBM 530       Small Receipt Printer, 70mm paper roll, black/red ribbon ​   BC
 +* CBM 1526      80 Col. 8.5" Wide 8*8 Matrix No GFX, Brown, Serial 60cps. ​  JB
 +  CBM 2021      80 Col. Matrix Electrosatic (Thermal) Printer, GFX.
 +* CBM 2022      80 Col. 8.5" Wide 7*6 Matrix No GFX, Off-White, IEEE-488. ​  GP
 +* CBM 2023      Friction-Only 2022.
 +* CBM 3022      2022 for PET 3000, IEEE-488. ​                               SL
 +* CBM 3023      2023 for PET 3000, IEEE-488. ​                               TL
 +* CBM 4022      80 Col, 10" Wide 8*6 Matrix No GFX, Epson MX-80, IEEE-488. ​ SL
 +* CBM 4022p     ​Bidirectional 4022, Epson MX-70?, IEEE-488.
 +* CBM 4023      80 Col. 10" Wide 8*8 Matrix No GFX, NLQ, Brown, IEEE-488. ​  GP
 +* CBM 6400      C.Itoh Starwriter F10-40, Centronics or IEEE-488 ​           SL
 +  CBM 8022      ?
 +* CBM 8023      80 Col. 14" Wide 8*8 Matrix No GFX, Off White, IEEE-488 ​    JB
 +  CBM 8023P     136 Col. 15" Wide 8*6 Matrix, GFX, IEEE-488.
 +* CBM 8024      132 Col. Mannesman Tally, 7*7, Upgrade to 7*9, Cream, IEEE. GV
 +* CBM 8024/​A ​   132 Col. Mannesman Tally, 9*7, 160 cps bidirectional. ​      SL
 +* CBM 8024L     8024 Multi-Pass NLQ Printer, IEEE-488.
 +* CBM 8026      OLYMPIA ESW-103, TypeWriter Printer, IEEE-488.
 +* CBM 8026b     8026 Extended.?
 +* CBM 8027      8026 without Keys, IEEE-488.
 +* CBM 8028      132 Col. 15" Daisy-Wheel,​ (Robotron), Cent./​IEEE-488 ​        SL
 +* CBM 8075      Plotter, available in 1 and 8 pen variety, IEEE-488
 +* CBM 8229      8028 with 16kB print buffer.
 +* CBM 8300P     ​Diablo 630, Daisy Wheel, Cream, IEEE-488.
 +  CBM-P1 ​       Daisy Wheel Printer.
 +* DPS 1101      132 Col. 13", Daisy-Wheel,​ Friction Feed, Juki 6100, Serial.
 +* DPS 1120      116-175 Col. 14.5" wide Daisy, Black, Serial. ​ (Olympia) ​   RH
 +* IP3300 ​       Ink Jet Printer ​                                            IM
 +* LPS 2000      Laser Printer, Centronics (Possibly German Only).
 +* MCS 801       80 Col. 8.5" Wide 8*8 Matrix GFX Color, Serial. ​            FB
 +* MPC 801       Juki Color Printer ​                                         HR
 +* MPP 1361      8023P. ​                                                     GP
 +* MPS 801       80 Col. 8.5" Wide 7*6 Matrix GFX, Brown, Serial. ​           GP
 +* MPS 802       ​1526. ​                                                      JB
 +* MPS 803       80 Col. 8.5" Wide 7*6 Matrix GFX, Brown, Serial. ​           GP
 +* MPS 803       80 Col. 8.5" Wide 7*6 Matrix GFX, Charcoal Grey, Serial. ​   GP
 +* MPS 810       ​Okimate 10 ?                                                CA
 +* MPS 820       ​Okimate 20 ?                                                CA
 +* MPS 1000      Epson HomeWriter, US Version. 9 pin, 100cps draft. ​         BZ
 +* MPS 1000      Epson HomeWriter, Intl. version with switchable charsets. ​  GD
 +* MPS 1000      Seikosha 1000.
 +* MPS 1200      Citizen 120D. 9 pin 120 cps draft, CBM Serial interface. ​   BW
 +* MPS 1200P     MPS 1200 with Parallel Interface. ​                          DW
 +* MPS 1224C     ​Mannesmann Tally, 24 pin Color Printer, MT Printer, Ser/Par
 +* MPS 1230      Citizen, 9 pin, Centronics. ​                                EB
 +* MPS 1250      Citizen, Serial/​Centronics. ​                                BZ
 +* MPS 1270      Ink Jet Printer, uses Kodak Diconix Cartridges, Centronics. DL
 +* MPS 1500      ???
 +* MPS 1550      9 pin printer, Centronics.
 +* MPS 1550C     9 pin 4 color Printer, OLIVETTI DM105, Centronics. ​         MH
 +* MPS 2000      NEC P6
 +* MPS 2000C     NEC P6 Color
 +* MPS 2010      NEC P7
 +* MPS 2010C     NEC P7 Color
 +* VIC 1510      ???? (predecessor of VIC 1515)
 +* VIC 1515      80 Col. 7.0" Wide 6*7 Matrix GFX, Off White, Serial. ​       GY
 +* VIC 1520      80 Col. 4.0" Wide Plotter, GFX, Off White, 4 color. Serial
 +* VIC 1520      80 Col. 4.0" Wide Plotter, GFX, Brown, Paper Cover,​Ser. ​    ​GY ​
 +* VIC 1520      80 Col. 4.0" Wide Plotter, GFX, Brown, No Paper Cover,​Ser. ​ PZ
 +* VIC 1525      80 Col. 8.5" Wide 7*6 Matrix GFX, Off-White, Serial. ​       JB
 +  VIC 1525e     same as 1525, but ROMs implement slower bus for 64.
 +Monitor Series:
 +* CBM 1070      Dig&​Analog RGBI.                                            BR
 +* CBM 1080      13" Comp. Sep, Dig&​Analog RGB                               YC
 +* CBM 1081      1987 German Amiga Monitor ​                                  MK
 +* CBM 1083S-P1 ​ 13" Comp, Sep, D&A RGBI, Stereo, CVBS/​RGB/​LCA 1991 French ​  PM
 +* CBM 1084      1080 with squarer case .42mm dot pitch
 +* CBM 1084-D ​   12" Comp. Sep, Dig&​Analog RGBI, ???? case, Mono.            FM
 +* CBM 1084S-P ​  ​13"​ Comp, Sep, Dig&​Analog RGBI, 1902 case, Stereo. ​         FF
 +* CBM 1084S-P1 ​ 13" Comp, Sep, Dig&​Analog RGBI, 1084 case,stero hphone jack MJ
 +* CBM 1084S-D ​  ​13"​ Comp, Sep, Dig&​Analog RGBI, 1080 case, Stereo. ​         JB
 +* CBM 1084S-D1 ​ 13" Comp, Sep, Dig&​Analog RGBI, 1084 case, Stereo. ​         DE
 +* CBM 1085S     ​14"​ .52mm dot pitch 1084
 +* CBM 1402      12" Hercules Monitor ​                                       SM
 +* CBM 1403      13" VGA.
 +* CBM 1404      14" Amber Monochrome.
 +* CBM 1407      14" VGA Monochrome, 64 grey tones.
 +* CBM 1450      Monochrome BISYNC monitor.
 +  CBM 1601      12" Monochrome monitor.
 +  CBM 1701      13" Comp, Sep, 5 pin DIN adaptor, JVC elec. Hitachi tube.   JB
 +* CBM 1702      13" Comp, Sep, Came with 8 pin DIN adaptor. Magnavox. ​      JB
 +  CBM 1703      Repackaged 1702 for 264 series, ​ Was Charcoal Grey.
 +* CBM 1801      14" Comp, Sep, PAL.                                         JT
 +* CBM 1802      13" Comp, Sep, Mono, Grey, one big knob in front. ​          PS
 +* CBM 1802      13" Comp, Sep, Mono, Grey, Two small knobs in front.
 +* CBM 1802      13" Comp, Sep, Mono, Cream, Tilted screen.
 +* CBM 1802C     ​13"​ Comp, Sep, Mono, Cream, Straight screen.
 +* CBM 1900      12" Green Mono Monitor.
 +  CBM 1901      European 128 Monitor (Thomson). ​                            AC
 +* CBM 1902      13" Comp, Sep, Digital RGBI, has a 9 pin RGB plug.          MP
 +* CBM 1902A     ​13"​ Comp, Sep, Digital RGBI, Looks like 1084, DIN RGB plug. DL
 +* CBM 1903      13" EGA 
 +* CBM 1904      13" EGA
 +* CBM 1930      14" VGA .31mm dot pitch.
 +* CBM 1934      14" VGA .39mm dot pitch.
 +* CBM 1935-II ​  ​14"​ SVGA, .28mm dot pitch, MPR-II low radiation.
 +* CBM 1936      14" SVGA .28mm dot pitch.
 +* CBM 1944      13" EGA Low Radiation
 +* CBM 1940      Amiga Multiscan Monitor
 +* CBM 1942      Amiga Multiscan Monitor ​                                    FF
 +* CBM 1950      13" MultiScan
 +* CBM 1960      13" MultiScan
 +* CBM 2002-23 ​  ​13"​ Comp, Sep, Dig&​Analog RGBI.                             CS
 +* CBM 2002-89 ​  ​13"​ Comp, Sep, Dig&​Analog RGBI.
 +  CBM 2020                        ​
 +* CBM 2024      15" Grey scale 1024*1024(PAL),​ 1024*800(NTSC). ​             IN
 +* CBM 2080      13" CBM 1080 with High Persistence Phosphors. ​              TM
 +* CBM CM141     ​13"​ Comp, Sep., Grey.                                       WS
 +* CBM CM8833 ​                                                               JA
 +* CBM DM-10     ​12"​ CGA monochrone text monitor for PC-10.
 +* Viking ​       Moniterm: 19" Grey Scale 1024*1024, Made by Moniterm/​CBM.
 +                2024 is similar, but has electronics in monitor.
 +Modem Series: ​  ​Direct Connect (8010 is aucoustic).
 +* Amiga RS1200 ​ 0-1200 bps, Hayes Compatible
 +* Btx-Modul I   ​Cartridge IC to display CEPT GFX (BTX = German CIS)
 +* Btx-Modul II  Upgraded version of Btx-Modul I.
 +* CBM 1650      0-300 bps, Pulse Dial, known as '​Automodem' ​                BZ
 +* CBM 1660      0-300 bps, Pulse Dial, Tone Dial with 64, Brown/​White ​      DV
 +* CBM 1660      0-300 bps, Pulse Dial, Tone Dial with 64, Cream/​Black ​      DV
 +* CBM 1670      0-1200 bps, Hayes Compatible, ATS0=0 turns off Auto-Answer ​ BZ
 +* CBM 1670CR ​   1670 with DIP switches to turn off default auto-answer ​     JB
 +* CBM 1680      1670 with true RS-232 for Amiga. ​                           BZ
 +* CBM 6499      300/300 and 1200/75 bps modem for 64. Italian Compunet? ​    FF
 +* CBM 8010      0-300 bps, US & Euro Versions, IEEE-488 ​                    SL
 +* Compunet ​     plugged into Exp. Port, Cream case.
 +* VIC 1600      0-300 bps, No dial.                                         JB
 +* VM 2400       ​0-2400 bps, CCITT V.24, Model 701324, BTX, MNP 5, V.42bis ​  RL
 +Mouse Series:
 +* CBM 1350      Emulates Joystick only                                      BZ
 +* CBM 1351-1 ​   Emulates Joy and prop mouse. sliding ball release ​          IC
 +* CBM 1351-2 ​   Emulates Joy and prop mouse. rotating ball release ​         IC
 +* CBM 1352      Amiga 2 button Mouse, will work with PC-III models. ​        MN
 +* CBM 1360      Serial Mouse for PC series.
 +* 313254-01 ​    2 button Amiga mouse. ​                                      BZ
 +* 313255-01 ​    3 button Amiga mouse. ​                                      CS
 +* CD-1252 ​      Amiga 2 button mouse, black, infrared, CDTV dedicated
 +* CD-1253 ​      CDTV mouse, 8.5 foot cable. black                           BB
 +RAM Expanders: ​   ​
 +* 8032099 ​      64kB RAM for 8032.                                          RS
 +* A501          512kB for Amiga 500                                         AC
 +* A501+         1MB for Amiga 500+
 +* A590          Ram Expansion 2MB, SCSI and XT bus for A500
 +* A601          1MB for Amiga 600
 +* A1050         256kB for Amiga 1000 (Under Front Cover) ​                   CS
 +* A2058-2 ​      2MB for Amiga 2000, expandable to 8                         BK
 +* CBM 1700      128kB. ​                                                     WS
 +* CBM 1750      512kB                                                       AC
 +* CBM 1764      256kB. ​                                                     JB
 +* CD 1401       ​Personal RAM Card for CDTV (64kB)
 +* CD 1405       ​Personal RAM card for CDTV (256kB)
 +* VIC 1110      8kB for VIC-20 ​                                             WS
 +* VIC 1111      16kB for VIC-20 ​                                            JB
 +* VIC 1210      3kB for VIC-20 ​                                             BZ
 +                VIC Joystick, Atari style body and stick.
 +* VIC 1311      VIC Joystick, Rectangular body, triangular stick            JB
 +* VIC 1312      VIC Paddles ​                                                MP
 +*               ​Paddles,​ Dark Grey, Light Grey Knobs. ​                      GP
 +* T-1341 ​       Plus 4 Joystick
 +* T-1342 ​       Plus 4 Joystick ​                                            BZ
 +CPU Upgrade Series:
 +* Amiga 2620    68020 and 68881 @ 14.3 MHz for A2000                        CS
 +* Amiga 2630    68030 and 68882 @ 25 MHz for A2000  with 4MB RAM            CS
 +* Amiga 3640    68040 CPU Card for A3000T. ​                                 FF 
 +Networking Series:
 +* Amiga 560     ​ARCNET for Amiga 500.                                       MN
 +* Amiga 2060    ARCNET for A2000 for star topology ​                         MN
 +* Amiga 2060    ARCNET for A2000 for bus topology
 +* Amiga 2065    Ethernet for A2000
 +* Amiga 2232    7 Port Multi-Serial Card.
 +* MBS 100       ​Mehr-Benutzer-System (Multi-User-System) Mother Unit with   SL
 +                one D-25 and 1 IEEE-488. ​ Basically a simply-designed
 +                peripheral-sharing system
 +* MBS 150       ​Daughter Unit, had two D-25's and one IEEE-488 ​       ​
 +* MBS 150       MBS 150 with extra plug to connect 8032SK ​                  SL
 +* MBS-CP ​       MBS System for Commodore 64.
 +Cartridge Series:
 +* C64108 ​       Simons'​ BASIC                                               JB
 +*               ​International Soccer
 +*               Magic Desk I                                                MN
 +*               Magic Voice Speech Module
 +*               Music Machine
 +*               ​Number Nabber ​                                              JB
 +*               Shape Grabber ​                                              JB
 +* C64403 ​       Music Composer ​                                             JB
 +* C64601 ​       Jupiter Lander ​                                             MN
 +* C64602 ​       Kickman ​        * = Bally developed under CBM license ​      JB
 +* C64603 ​       Sea Wolf        *                                           JB
 +* C64604 ​       Speed Math/Bingo Math 
 +* C64605 ​       Radar Rat Race
 +* C64606 ​       Clowns ​         *                                           MN
 +* C64609 ​       Visible Solar System
 +* C64610 ​       Tooth Invaders
 +  C64612 ​       Blueprint ​      *
 +* C64613 ​       Lazarian ​       *
 +* C64614 ​       Omega Race      *
 +  C64615 ​       Wizard of Wor
 +* C64616 ​       Le Mans
 +* C64617 ​       Pinball Spectacular
 +* C64618 ​       Gorf
 +* C64621 ​       Avenger ​                                                    JB
 +* C64622 ​       Super Smash                                                 JB
 +* C64623 ​       Star Post
 +* C64624 ​       Frogmaster
 +* C64631 ​       Star Ranger
 +*               64 Super Expander ​                                          JB
 +*               C16 Tutor                                                   JB
 +                Jelly Monsters VIC Cart, Pac Man Clone. ​ GFX too close to   AB
 +                Pac Man.  Taken off Market. ​ GFX changed. ​ Re-released as
 +                Cosmic Crunchers.
 +* VIC 1211A     VIC SuperExpander with 3kB RAM Expansion. (for VIC-20) (gm) JB
 +* VIC 1212      VIC Programmer'​s Aid. (for VIC-20) ​                         BZ
 +* VIC 1213      VIC Machine Language Monitor. (for VIC-20) ​                 HS
 +* VIC 1901      Avenger (VIC Avenger) (bp)                                  GY
 +* VIC 1901      Avenger (VIC Avenger) (gm)                                  JB
 +* VIC 1902      Star Battle
 +* VIC 1904      Slot (Super Slot), Japan, embossed aluminum label           GY
 +* VIC 1905      Jelly Monsters, Handic SW, Sweden, silver foil label
 +* VIC 1906      Alien (Super Alien) (gm)                                    JB
 +* VIC 1907      Jupiter Lander ​  ​(Super Lander?) (gm)                       JB
 +* VIC 1908      Poker (Draw Poker) ​                                         GY
 +* VIC 1909      Road Race (Midnight Drive) ​                                 GY
 +* VIC 1909      Rat Race? Handic SW, Sweden, silver foil label              AB
 +* VIC 1910      Radar Rat Race                                              GY
 +* VIC 1911      The Sky Is Falling ​                                         GY
 +* VIC 1912      Mole Attack (gm)                                            JB
 +* VIC 1912      Mole Attack (bp)                                            JB
 +* VIC 1913      Raid On Fort Knox, Hong Kong (gp)                           GY
 +* VIC 1913      Raid On Fort Knox, Hong Kong (bp)                           JB
 +* VIC 1914      Adventure Land                                              GY
 +* VIC 1914      Adventure Land (bp)                                         JB
 +* VIC 1915      Pirate'​s Cove                                               GY
 +* VIC 1916      Mission Impossible ​                                         GY
 +* VIC 1917      The Count                                                   GY
 +* VIC 1917      The Count (bp)                                              JB
 +* VIC 1918      Voodoo Castle ​                                              GY
 +* VIC 1919      Sargon II Chess (gm)                                        JB
 +* VIC 1920      Pinball (Pinball Spectacular?​),​ Hong Kong, grey plastic lab GY
 +* VIC 1921      Super Smash                                                 GY
 +* VIC 1921      Super Smash (bp)                                            JB
 +* VIC 1922      Cosmic Cruncher (bp)                                        JB
 +* VIC 1923      Gorf (bp)                                                   JB
 +* VIC 1924      Omega Race (bp)                                             JB
 +* VIC 1924      Omega Race (gm)                                             JB
 +* VIC 1925      Money Wars                                                  GY
 +* VIC 1926      Menagerie
 +* VIC 1927      Cosmic Jailhouse (Cosmic Jailbreak), Hong Kong, grey label
 +* VIC 1928      Home Babysitter
 +* VIC 1929      Personal Finance
 +* VIC 1930      Visible Solar System ​                                       GY
 +* VIC 1931      Clowns ​                                                     GY
 +* VIC 1932      Garden Wars                                                 GY
 +* VIC 1933      Speed Math/Bingo Math                                       GY
 +* VIC 1933      Speed Math/Bingo Math (bp)                                  JB
 +* VIC 1935      Commodore Artist (gp)                                       JB
 +* VIC 1937      Sea Wolf (bp)                                               JB
 +* VIC 1938      Tooth Invaders ​                                             GY
 +* VIC 1939      Star Post (bp)                                              JB
 +* VIC 1941      Number Nabber Shape Grabber ​                                
 +  VIC 2011      VIC-Stat cartridge.  ​   ​
 +  VIC 2012      VIC-Graph cartridge.
 +  VIC 2013      VIC-Forth cartridge.
 +  ​
 +Cassette Software Series:
 +*               An Introduction to BASIC Part I (VIC)                       PA
 +*               An Introduction to BASIC Part II (VIC)                      PA
 +* C64301 ​       An Introduction to BASIC Part I (64)                        JB
 +* VL110         Gorek and the Microchips ​                                   JB
 +  VT106A ​       Recreation Six Pack (Car Chase, Blue Meanies, Space Math,
 +                Slither/​Super Slither, Bioryhtm Capability) ​  
 +* VT107A ​       Home Utility Six Pack (Cassette with Personal Finance I & 2,
 +                VIC Typewriter, Expense Calendar, Loan and Mort. Calc,​  ​   ​
 +                Home Inventory ​                                             DR
 +* VT108         Math Improvement Six Pack (Numbowl, LCM Machine, Sector
 +                Five, Backfire, Ruler Dueler, City Motel                    PA
 +* VT109         Six Pack Sampler (Crawler, Treasure of the Bat Cave, Big     
 +                Wolf, Alpha Draw, Music Synthesizer,​ Super Seeker ​          PA
 +                ​
 +Diskette Software Series:
 +* C64106 ​       PILOT Programming Language (Large Book)                     JB
 +* C64207 ​       Easy Script 64 (book, disks, and cardboard case             JB
 +* C64220 ​       General Ledger v1.0                                         JB
 +* C64221 ​       Account'​s Receivable ​                                       CO
 +* C64222 ​       Account'​s Payable ​                                          CO
 +* C64223 ​       Payroll v1.0                                                CO
 +* C64626 ​       Infocom Zork II (marketed under CBM name)                   JB
 +* C64628 ​       Infocom Deadline (marketed under CBM name)                  JB
 +* C64711 ​       Math III                                                    JB
 +*               ​Introduction to Advanced BASIC Commands and Concepts ​       JB
 +*               Model 1541 Test/Demo Diskette ​                              JB
 +*               ​Commodore 64 Screen Editor ​                                 JB
 +  ​
 +Miscellaneous Series:
 +*               High Speed Graphic Expander for 600/700 Series ​             SK
 +*               ​Tractor Feed for MPS 803                                    BZ
 +*               HiRes Graphics for PET 4000/8000.
 +*               MOS Technology EPROM Programmer, Off-White. ​                GP
 +                Single Sheet Feeder for CBM 8028.
 +                CBM 3040 to CBM 4040 ROM upgrade kit.
 +*               ​252594-01 CDTV remote controller, standard unit.            BB
 +  324402 ​       High Speed Graphics board for CBM 40XX/​80XX. ​               PO
 +  1001027-03 ​   PAL TV Modulator for VIC-20. ​                               FF
 +* 201490-01 ​    ​CHESSmate PCB: 201482 Rev A.  4 LEDs, 4 dig display. 19 key MB
 +* Amiga 10      Stereo MultiMedia Speakers, Cream. ​                         CS
 +* Amiga 520     RF Modulator Channel 3-4, Audio In, Video Out, RF Out       JM
 +* Amiga 570     ​CD-ROM for Amiga 500+, CDTV compatible.
 +* Amiga 1300    Amiga Genlock made for Amiga 1000.
 +* Amiga 1310    Amiga Genlock.
 +* Amiga 2031    Amiga PAL Video modulator board for A2000
 +* Amiga 2032    Amiga PAL Video modulator board for A2000
 +* Amiga 2070    150.250 MB Tape Drive, uses 1/4" tape, Grey, SCSI, A2000
 +* Amiga 2090    SCSI and ST506 (MFM)                                        MN
 +* Amiga 2090A   ​Autoboot A2090
 +* Amiga 2091    SCSI Controller, RAM Expansion. ​                            CS
 +* Amiga 2300    Amiga Genlock for A2000.
 +  Amiga 2301    Semi-professional Genlock (Possibly PAL?)
 +* Amiga 2320    Deinterlacer card.  Converts 15.75KHz display to 31.5KHz.
 +* Amiga 2350    Professional Genlock for A2000.
 +  Amiga 2351    Genlock (PAL?)
 +* Amiga 2410    "​University of Lowell"​ TIGA Card, 8 bit GFX, TI34010.
 +  Amiga 2995    Video Master (Direction rack + Genlock + Video Digitizer)
 +* Amiga 3070    150.250 MB Tape Drive, uses 1/4" tape, Cream, SCSI.         CS
 +* Amiga 3406    Amiga RF Modulator.
 +* Amiga 4091    SCSI-2 Controller for Zorro III Slot.
 +* AMIX          O.S. ATT SysVR4 for A2000. Requires A2620.
 +* CBM 1399      MicroSwitches Joystick w/ Auto-Fire.
 +* CBM 4010      Voice Response Unit made by Votrax for PETs.
 +* CBM 4270      I/O Controller for CBM PET series. ​                         SL
 +* CBM 8072      Graphics Tablet, IEEE-488.
 +* CBM 64850     Magic Voice Module for Commodore 64. (p/n 319000-01 ​        GB
 +* CBM 60110     ​Commodore 64 CP/M Cartridge. US model? ​                     JV
 +* CBM 606480 ​   Commodore 64 CP/M Cartridge. German model? ​                 HS
 +* CD 1200       Black external infrared controller for CDTV.
 +* CD 1221       Black version of A4000 Keyboard. CDTV dedicated, not I/R.   BZ
 +* CD 1300       ​Genlock card for CDTV (NTSC)
 +* CD 1301       ​Genlock card for CDTV (PAL)
 +* CD 1321       SCART card for CDTV
 +  CSA 58A-601 ​  ​Thermostat manufactured for Johnson Controls. ​              DB
 +* Sound Expander CBM SFX FM Sound Expander: uses FM DSS IC in Yamaha DX7    RW
 +* Sound Sampler CBM SFX Sound Sampler ​                                      RW
 +* x375          Commodore Scanner ​                                          DI
 +* VIC 1011A     ​RS-232 Interface, Outputted True RS-232 Voltages ​           DT  ​
 +* VIC 1011B     ​RS-232 20mA Current Loop.                                   NP
 +* VIC 1020      Expansion Chassis for VIC                                   AC
 +* VIC 1112      IEEE-488 Interface. ​                                        HS
 +  VIC 1214      VIC Voice Synthesizer.
 +  VIC 4011      VIC-REL (Rele'​) Remote control switch
 +  VIC 4012      Vic-Switch. ​ Allow 16 VICs to share drives and printers.
 +* VIC 1010      VIC-20 Expansion Module ​                                    GE
 +* VM115         ​Softback Books (VIC Revealed, VIC Games, VIC Graphics, ​
 +                Stimulating Situations for the VIC)
 +------------------Commodore Models Never Produced or Marketed:​----------------
 +Commodore TOI Series:
 +  TOI           "​The Other Intellect"​
 +  ​
 +Commodore PET Series:
 +* CBM 4032-P ​   Portable 4032 Prototype. Had 4032, 4040, and Datasette. ​    RS
 +* CBM 8033      Color 8032. (Used NEC monitor in regular monitor housing)
 +  PETREGISTER ​  ​(CBMREGISTER) Cash register PET (based on 8032). 50 units
 +Commodore VIC Series:
 +  VIC-20TV ​     Vic-20 with built in 2" TV
 +  ​
 +Commodore 64 Series: ​               ​
 +  CBM SX-100 ​   Predecessor of the SX-64, had B&W monitor.
 +  CBM DX-64     SX-64 with two drives.
 +  ​
 +Commodore 264 Series:
 +* CBM 232       C16 in Plus/4 case with 32 kB RAM
 +* CBM 264       ​Prototype Plus/​4 ​                                           JB
 +* CBM CV364     264 with keypad and speech synthesizer.
 +* CBM 464       C900
 +  ​
 +Commodore LCD Series: ​
 +  CBM CLCD      Commodore Portable with LCD screen. 1MHz 65C102, BASIC 3.6,
 +                32 kB RAM, 96 kB ROM, 80x16 text display, 480x128 graphics,
 +                RS-232-C, Centronics, and H-P Bar Coder Ports, Plus-4 type
 +                keyboard, no SID, no sprites, ML Monitor in ROM.
 +  CBM C64Laptop Erroneous name for CLCD.
 +Commodore 128 Series:
 +  CBM C128PC ​   Preannounce name for C128.
 +* CBM C128D/​81 ​ Prototype C128D (plastic) with 3.5" drive                   AA
 +* CBM 256       128 with 125MB HD, one button mouse, built-in 3.5" drive    FD
 +Commodore P series:
 +  CBM P128      P-500                                ​
 +* CBM P500      B128 case, 2 joystick ports, 40 column video. ​              LA
 +  ​
 +C900 Series: ​   Prototype UNIX System, dropped after Amiga acquisition
 +                Zilog Z8000 CPU, Runs Coherent 0.7.3, UNIX 7 clone,
 +                Built-In Floppy, HD, IEEE-488. MFM Disk Controller, 1MB
 +                9600 bps, 500 units made. Came in two versions.
 +* C900/​lo ​      LoRes (80*24 Text, Max 6 Serial Lines) ​                     PL
 +* C900/​hi ​      HiRes (1024*800 Graphics 2 Serial Lines) ​                   SL
 +* Z 8000/​lo ​    ​C900/​lo ​                                                    PL
 +* Z 8000/​hi ​    ​C900/​hi ​                                                    SL
 +Amiga Series:
 +  A300          Prototype A600
 +  A300CD ​       A 300 + CD ROM Drive (first name of CD32 unit.)
 +  A3000+ ​       3000 with 25MHz 68040, AGA, DSP. (<100 made)
 +  CDTV-II ​      CDTV with built in drive
 +  ​
 +Commodore 64DX Series: had both 64 and 65 mode.  built in 1581 style drive.
 +                       ​Native mode had BASIC 10.0, dual SID, 128kB and 3.54
 +                       MHz 6502 derivative CPU with extra addressing modes.
 +                       Could access >64kB directly.  ​
 +* CBM C65       ​Commodore 64 DX Machine ​                                    JB
 +Drive Series:
 +  CBM 1010      Pre 2040 prototype?
 +  CBM 1020 Pre 2040 prototype?
 +  CBM 1030      Pre 2040 prototype? ​
 +  CBM 1541H     High density 1541 drive
 +  CBM 1543      1541H
 +  CBM 1541D     ​Double 1541
 +  CBM 1561      720kB single 3.5". for Commodore LCD.
 +* CBM 1563      720kB single 3.5". prototype of 1581, found in C128D/​81 ​    AA
 +  CBM 1571 II   1571 with external PS
 +* CBM 1590-D-1 ​ Single 3.5" 1.44MB, DOS 14.13, 1581 case, Serial. ​          JV
 +  CBM 2041      Single 5.25" 170K, DOS1.2,​Off-White,​No Rel Files,​IEEE-488.
 +  CBM 4040 LP   Dual 5.25" 170K, Off-White, Half Height, IEEE-488
 +  CBM 8070      Dual 8", ????
 +  CBM 8250 LP   ​Prototype,​ no "​tower"​ PCBs on motherboard ​                  PK
 +  CBM D9062     Dual D9065.
 +  CBM D9065     7.5 MB Hard Drive   
 +*               35MB HD, Serial ​                                            JV
 +                3.5" DD FD for CBM Laptop, battery powered
 +PC Series:
 +* PC-30         ​PC-20-II with 20MB HD                                       PK
 +* PC-70         ​prototype of TW486-25C ​                                     PK
 +  PC-80-1 ​      ​80386DX @ 16MHz, German.
 +  PC-80-2 ​      ​Pentium Pro machine. (US only)
 +  A2088T ​       A2088 @ 8 MHz. V20.
 +  A2286/​6 ​      80286 @ 6MHz BridgeCard.
 +  A2286/​10 ​     80286 @ 10MHz BridgeCard.
 +CPU Upgrade Series:
 +  Amiga 2630    68030 and 68882 @ 33 MHz for A2000  with 4MB RAM
 +Miscellaneous Series:
 +* Amiga 3091    Internal SCSI Controller for A3000.  ​
 +                It exists, but is not a product. ​ It is a nickname for the
 +                SCSI Controller part of the A3000 Motherboard.
 +-----------------------------Owner Mnemonics:​---------------------------------
 +AA    Al Anger                   ​
 +AB    Adam Bergstrom ​            ​
 +AC    Anders Carlsson ​ 
 +BA    Brian Van Avermaete ​
 +BB    Brian Bell                 ​
 +BC    Barbara Clarke ​            ​
 +BD    Bill Dwyne                 ​
 +BG    Bruce Gomes      
 +BK    Barry Kryshka ​   
 +BR    Bob Richardson
 +BW    Bill Ward
 +BZ    Bo Zimmerman ​              ​
 +CA    Chris Alevras
 +CE    Chris Eckersley ​ 
 +CH    Charlie Hitselberger ​      ​
 +CK    Cameron Kaiser ​            ​
 +CO    Carl Sofranko ​   
 +CS    Christian Stich
 +DA    Doug Armstrong
 +DB    David Belter
 +DE    David Evola      
 +DI    Darren Allion ​             ​
 +DL    Daniel Lowe
 +DR    Dave Ross        
 +DT    David Veatch ​              ​
 +DV    David Villegas ​            ​
 +DW    Dirk Wilberg ​              ​
 +EB    Erik Inge Bols             ​
 +EC    Ernie Chorney
 +EG    Edward Groenenberg
 +FB    Fredrick Backman
 +FD    Fred Dagler ​     
 +FF    Fabrizio Farenga
 +FH    Frank Hughes ​              ​
 +FM    Frank McKee      
 +FR    Francois Bruggemans ​
 +GB    Gene B                     ​
 +GD    Gregoire Debaiseux
 +GE    Gary Pearson
 +GK    Golan Klinger
 +GP    George Page
 +GR    Glen R. Perye III
 +GV    Gerben van Vlimmeren ​      ​
 +GY    Gil Y. Parrish ​            ​
 +HR    Harold Ross      
 +HS    Horst Schulte-Schrepping
 +IC    Irv Cobb                   ​
 +IM    Ian MacGowan ​              ​
 +IN    Thomas '​innot'​ Holland
 +JA    Joerg Amhofer ​   
 +JB    Jim Brain        
 +JC    Joe Cassara ​
 +JL    Jim Malenczak ​   
 +JM    Jon Mines
 +JO    Jim Ronback ​     
 +JP    Jim Spindler ​              ​
 +JR    John Robinson ​   
 +JS    Jeff Shropshire ​ 
 +JT    Joe Tiziano
 +JV    Jack Vanderwhite ​          ​
 +KK    Ken Kopin
 +KO    Kevin Ottum      
 +LA    Larry Anderson ​           ​
 +LI    Lincard ​         
 +LJ    L Jones          
 +MB    Martijn van Buul           ​
 +ME    Miika Seppanen ​            ​
 +MH    Michael Herz
 +MI    Marco Sicco      
 +MJ    Marc-Jano Knopp  
 +MK    Marcel van Kervinck
 +MM    Marko Makela ​              ​
 +MN    Michael King               ​
 +MP    Michael Parson
 +MS    Myles Skinner
 +NP    Nhat-Veit Phi
 +PA    Patrick Mattauch ​          ​
 +PB    Peter Bartlett ​            ​
 +PE    Pat Benner ​                ​
 +PK    Peter Kittel
 +PL    Pascal Lefrancois ​
 +PM    P. Moulin ​       
 +PO    Peter Soukup
 +PS    Paul Siu
 +PZ    Philip Zembrod
 +RB    Richard Briggs ​            ​
 +RC    Rico                       ​
 +RH    Richard Hable
 +RI    Rich White                 ​
 +RJ    R. Jaycocks  ​
 +RL    Rob vd Luur      
 +RM    Ronald A. Mayne  
 +RN    RIchard Cini               ​
 +RS    Ronald Snyder
 +RW    Randy Winchester
 +SA    Simon Lambourn ​            ​
 +SD    Shawn Dessaigne ​ 
 +SF    Sean Fox                   ​
 +SK    Stephan Kleinert ​          ​
 +SL    Scott McLauchlan ​          ​
 +SM    Sander van Malssen
 +SL    Simon Laule
 +TE    Thomas Hechelhammer ​
 +TG    Tom Griner ​                ​
 +TH    Tapio Olavi Heikkinen
 +TL    Thomas Lampart
 +TM    Tony McKimm
 +TA    Todd Mason                 ​
 +VM    Ville Muikkula ​            ​
 +WA    Wolfram Sauerteig ​ ​
 +                                 ​
 +WS    Ward Shrake ​     
 +WW    WrongWay ​                  ​
 +WZ    William Zwicky ​            ​
 +YC    Yvette Cantrell
 +===========================End of Canonical List==============================
 +@(#)surf: Hack Surfing ​
 +For those who can access that great expanse of area called the World 
 +Wide Web, here are some new places to visit that are of interest to the 
 +Commodore community. ​ In early 1994, when the US Commodore WWW Site 
 +started, the number of sites online that catered to Commodore numbered ​
 +in the 10'​s. ​ Now, the number is in the 100'​s. ​ What a change. ​
 +If you know of a site that is not listed here, please feel free to send 
 +it to the magazine. ​ The following links have been gleaned from those 
 +recently changed or added to _CaBooM! - Your One Stop Commodore Links Site_.
 +Due to the large number of sites in the list this time, we're simply printing
 +out the information on each site.  The information comes directly from the
 +entry in CaBooM!, and no attempt has been made to correct grammar or spelling.
 +You can review them for yourself.
 +@(A): Web Sites
 +     * The Trading Post
 +       URL: http://​​tradingpost/​
 +       Parts include compatible and replacement data recorders, power
 +       ​supplies,​ manuals and leads.
 +     * Information on CommNet
 +       URL: http://​​~mbendure/​commnet
 +       This page describes the theory and history behind CommNet.
 +     * Linus c64 Page
 +       URL: http://​​c64linus
 +       View screen shots of and download my personal favourite games for
 +       the c64. Also a sid section, Greve Graphics, Music Shop, Art
 +       ​Studio and more. Updated at least once a week! Now with lots of
 +       more games!
 +     * Creater Omaha Commodore User's Group (GOCUG)
 +       URL: http://​​gocug/​index.phtml
 +       GOCUG serves the Omaha, Nebraska and nearby communities. A monthly
 +       ​newsletter is published, and we hold monthly meetings at 900 N
 +       90st Street in Omaha.
 +     * Terry'​s Home Page
 +       URL: http://​​~tmaynor/​index.html
 +       ​Commodore Help
 +     * SWRAP User Group Home Page
 +       URL: http://​​RGHarris/​swrap.html
 +       SWRAP (South West Regional Assoc. of Programmers) User Group,
 +       Inc., is a non-profit incorporated Commodore 64 & 128 user group,
 +       ​located in Chicago, Illinois. Check out our Home Page for
 +       ​information concerning meeting dates and times, and membership
 +       costs & benefits. Randy Harris, President
 +     * 5C Users Group
 +       URL: http://​​staff/​t/​s/​tss109
 +       ​Commodore User help in Central Pennsylvania. Updated frequently!!
 +     * Why the CBM is STILL the Best Available Home Computer
 +       URL: http://​​~echernof/​cbm/​best.html
 +       This site offers the reasons Eric Chernoff still uses his
 +       ​Commodore system.
 +     * C-Net 64 DS2 WWW Site
 +       URL: http://​​~mbendure/​cnet/​
 +       ​Information about the DS2 variant of the C-Net 64 BBS software
 +     * Bone's World of C64
 +       URL: http://​​SiliconValley/​Campus/​8814/​index.htm
 +       My site has the latest emulators and some games to play on those
 +       ​emulators.
 +     * PETindex
 +       URL: http://​​~fachat/​8bit/​petindex/​petindex.html
 +       PET hardware information gathered during the development of the
 +       VICE PET emulator, with links to other pages.
 +     * Special Reserve: Retro Corner Index
 +       URL: http://​​www/​public/​retro/​retroindex.html
 +       ​Special Reserve, the biggest computer games club in the world,
 +       ​present this look back at yesteryear.
 +     * ACTIVE InterNet HQ
 +       URL: http://​​~d95-pen/​
 +     * Commodore GEOS File List
 +       URL: http://​​~james1/​cbm_geos/​
 +       A Complete listing of all Commercial - Shareware - Freeware files
 +       for GEOS that have been available on the various online services
 +       and the Internet.
 +     * Russell'​s Homepage
 +       URL: http://​​Russell/​homepage.htm
 +       ​Commodore 64/128 files, Transfering files to and fro from PC and
 +       ​C64/​128 Packet Radio.
 +     * Eyeth Software
 +       URL: http://​​~telliott/​phantasm.html
 +       ​Showcases one program called Phantasm & Fantasy Construction Set.
 +       While still in beta stage, it is a program that allows the user to
 +       ​design a 3-D dungeon similar to those found in the Bard's Tale
 +       ​series or the Gold Box series made in collaboration by SSI/TSR.
 +       ​Screenshots and a demo is included.
 +     * Forces Of Evil
 +       URL: http://​​wrongway/​
 +     * Light
 +       URL: http://​​stud/​d94fa/​light/​light2.html
 +       ​(Sweden) PAL group
 +     * Daniel'​s C64 Nostalgica
 +       URL: http://​​~daba/​c64
 +       Demos from the groups I've been a member of during the good old
 +       C64 days. Some screen shots. You will find demos from: Unit Five
 +       (U5), The Vicious Circle and Alf 1853 among others!
 +     * The Commodore VIC-20
 +       URL: http://​​~rmelick/​
 +       A lot of interesting material about the VIC-20
 +     * Greg and Dave's C64 Web Site
 +       URL: http://​​~gvincent
 +       A web site that immortalizes the C=LXIV'​s ability to withstand the
 +       test of time and live on in our hearts and our emulators!
 +     * IHC Amiga Computers & Squeaky Sam's Internet Flea Market
 +       URL: http://​​~ihc
 +       We buy and sell used computers and offer support to the owners of
 +       "​orphan systems."​ Our business is totally internet, and run on
 +       ​Commodore and Amiga Computers
 +     * The Inner Circle
 +       URL: http://​​~icebbs
 +       Inner Circle BBS Homepage Online. Info about Inner Circle, 4 sale
 +       ​items,​ and more. Warning, Graphically intensive. If you just want
 +       4 sale add /4sale.html to the url
 +     * The Digital-Talk HomePage (C64!)
 +       URL: http://​​people/​s152551/​guests/​dt/​
 +       The Digital-Talk Magazine is the biggest C64 Disk Magazine in the
 +       ​German Language! Download your own Free Version from this Site!
 +     * Selcuk Ayguney'​s Page
 +       URL: http://​​SiliconValley/​Heights/​7074/​emulc64.htm
 +       ​Commodore 64 link site. Also other computer related resources.
 +     * PADUA HomePage
 +       URL: http://​​
 +     * PADUA FTP-Site
 +       URL: ftp://​​pub/​c64/​
 +       The PADUA-FTP-Site
 +     * CEBUG - Commodore East Brunswick Users Group
 +       URL: http://​​~cebug/​
 +       New Jersey based Commodore 64 & 128 User Group in existence since
 +       1983. The site has several sample newsletters,​ selected articles
 +       from prior newsletters,​ Interactive Marketplace,​ links to other
 +       ​Commodore related sites, and other information. Site designed to
 +       look good on both Lynx (text browser) and graphical browsers. We
 +       have several types of membership including Family (local),
 +       ​Newsletter (out of town), and/or Disk of the Month (DOM).
 +     * Commodore Club Danmark
 +       URL: http://​​~c64cdk
 +       Come an join CCDK's mailingliste and visit us on IRC. This web
 +       also includes games, emulators and much more.
 +     * Homepage of United GEOS Users Cologne (VGA), Germany
 +       URL: http://​​home/​Holger.Heimes/​vgapagee.htm
 +       Infos about the VGA Cologne Germany, History, Meetings, Members,
 +       ​BulletinBoardSystems
 +     * Antigrav Toolkit
 +       URL: http://​​randy/​www/​antigrav/​antigrav.html
 +       This page includes articles written for GEOWORLD magazine,
 +       ​information about GEOS and PostScript, KeyDOS ROM and CP/M. There
 +       are also links to ftp sites which have the software listed in the
 +       ​articles (this provider does not support ftp).
 +     * Triangle Online!
 +       URL: http://​​%7Epip781/​triangle/​
 +       ​Journey back to the golden days of the C64 scene. Grab copies of
 +       games and programs you thought were lost forever, see The Demo
 +       that never was!, see what others had to say - and add your own
 +       ​opinion,​ discover what the Triangle members are doing today, look
 +       at photos and screenshots,​ study the extensive amount of
 +       ​background material: group history, member profiles, interviews,
 +       ​articles,​ and more... The most comprehensive online guide to a
 +       ​single C64 group.
 +     * JSP Customer Service Center
 +       URL: http://​​~jspusa/​
 +       ​Complete hardware, software, ICs, parts and complete computer
 +       ​units,​ new and refurbished. C64/128, AMIGA everything and much
 +       more. Great site!
 +     * Project 64
 +       URL: http://​​homepages/​pcgeek/​proj64.htm
 +       ​Electronic Texts of many Commodore user's manuals and information
 +       ​resources.
 +     * Bjoern'​s Homepage
 +       URL: http://​​home/​dirk.lueders/​
 +       Some things about C64... StarTrek... and my life.
 +     * COMMODORE 64 ZONE 0
 +       URL: http://​​03/​zone0/​commodore64/​c64.html
 +       ​COMMODORE 64 ZONE 0 is a new site dedicated to the C64... comme
 +       here and see, you will find what you want for sure...
 +     * Nitros Developments
 +       URL: http://​​~w-23231/​Nitros/​
 +       ​Nitros are a demo group that has been around for the latest 2
 +       ​years,​we are 6 members,​realeasing a magazine (Emphatic),​4 issues
 +       out so far,we have also made 2 bigger demos so far. We have
 +       ​members in the following contries: Australia,​Turkiye,​Sweden,​Norway
 +     * Comp.binaries.cbm Home Page
 +       URL: http://​​cbm-binaries/​
 +       Home Page for the comp.binaries.cbm moderated Usenet newsgroup.
 +     * Commodore Service Manuals
 +       URL: http://​​Computers/​Commodore/​
 +       ​Service Manuals for Commodore equipment, including C64, C1540/1541
 +       and C1571. Includes also some scanned articles from COMPUTE!'​s
 +       ​Gazette and Ahoy.
 +     * Commodore 64 BASICs
 +       URL: http://​​SiliconValley/​Pines/​4935
 +       ​Everyone one of us(just about) had a c64 computer. I always liked
 +       to program silly games in BASIC. In fact, I still do. Come check
 +       it out.
 +     * History of Calculators
 +       URL: http://​​SiliconValley/​park/​7227
 +       ​Articles,​ timeline, photos, and stories relating to early
 +       ​electronic calculators (1960-1980). Includes free calculator
 +       ​related classified ad section.
 +     * OS/A65
 +       URL: http://​​~fachat/​8bit/​osa/​index.html
 +       A new operating system for C64 and other (homebuilt) 6502
 +       ​computers. A homebrew 6502 computer is also on this site. (The
 +       CS/A '​Gecko'​ computer)
 +     * The Feneric Home Page
 +       URL: http://​​home/​feneric/​index.html
 +     * The Living Daylights
 +       URL: http://​​tldcrew/​
 +       ​Hompage of an old just-for-fun-crew with some SID´s to
 +       ​download/​listen online!
 +     * BBS's that Support C= Users
 +       URL: http://​​~gaelyne/​favbbs.html
 +       An interactive list of BBS's that support Commodore users. Readers
 +       are encouraged to add their favourite C= or other platform BBS.
 +     * Linus VIC-20 Games Page
 +       URL: http://​​vic20
 +       View screen shots of and download lots of VIC-20 games. Read
 +       ​interviews with modern VIC-20 personalities. Cartridge games, tape
 +       ​games,​ constant updates. Now 158 games with screen shots and
 +       ​descriptions!
 +     * Timo Raita'​s C=homepage
 +       URL: http://​​vic/​cbm/​
 +       ​C=user from Finland. This site contains demos, music, photos
 +       ​etc... Check out!
 +     * Bacchus of FairLight'​s homepage
 +       URL: http://​
 +       ​Bacchus/​FairLight'​s page, best known for the list of c64 related
 +       tools on PC(MS-DOS) and Amiga. To some extent also for Mac and
 +       ​Unix/​Linux.
 +     * Crystal Software Homepage
 +       URL: http://​​commodor64/​Cse/​Crystal.htm
 +       The Crstal Software UK site - New software available
 +     * Computer Scene site
 +       URL: http://​​commodor64/​C64Scene/​Commodore.htm
 +       The Computer Scene Homepage, information on 'Zine 64, Commodore
 +       ​Tribune,​ PD, Software etc...
 +     * CCS64 Home Page
 +       URL: http://​​ccs64/​
 +       ​Official home page for the excellent CCS64 emulator (for PC/Unix).
 +       Also mirrored in the UK.
 +     * The Almighty C64
 +       URL: http://​​~femook/​c64.html
 +       A page with a wide variety of c64 related material from games to
 +       ​emulators to music and links to other c64 pages.
 +     * Commodore 264 Homepage
 +       URL: http://​​264HOME.HTML
 +       ​Commodore 264 series 8-bitter home pageC= 16, Plus/4, 116, 264,
 +       364 etc.Links to other 264 pages & New +4 Homepage. - Der
 +       ​Regmeister! Also J-Net C64 - Amiga Network - No CMDhard drive
 +       ​required - Use amiga!200 1541 blocks in 8 seconds! (1541=2mins)
 +     * C64 Tolkien Games
 +       URL: http://​​tolkien-games/​c64.html
 +       ​Descriptions of all known games based on the fantasy world
 +       ​invented by J.R.R. Tolkien, including Melbourne House'​s The Hobbit
 +       among others
 +     * Snowgum
 +       URL: http://​
 +       ​Russell Alpheys personal site for 64NET, an interface used to make
 +       your PC look like a C64 drive.
 +     * 8 bits are enough
 +       URL: http://​​harlekin
 +       This site contains information on my current projects, such as
 +       ​PiffyDOS (a modded JiffyDOS), a brilliant game called "​Linking
 +       ​Leroy"​ and a REU-expansion with extra RAM and ROM! This site will
 +       soon be the homepage of my HTML viewer...
 +     * Bullwnkl'​s Arcade Classic C-64 Fan Page
 +       URL: http://​​~faethor/​c64class/​c64class.htm
 +       A commodore 64 fan page dedicated to all the arcade classic games
 +       that appeared on the c-64.
 +     * Plus 4 homepage
 +       URL: http://​
 +       ​Commodore Plus/4 homepage. Has the only PC emulator of the Plus/4.
 +       Get THE latest version here and ONLY here.
 +     * FUNET GEOS archives
 +       URL: ftp://​​pub/​cbm/​geos
 +       ​Various utility files for Geos archived in Finland
 +     * Irv Cobb's Geos Files
 +       URL: http://​​irv_cobb/​geos/​geos2.html
 +       ​Assorted utility files and help information for Geos. Newly added
 +       games and fonts, with more to come.
 +     * The C64 Fanatics Web Page
 +       URL: http://​​~skynetw
 +       This is a real C64 dedicated web site made by the Sky Networks
 +       crew. This site offers monthly updated C64 software like games and
 +       ​utilities. The C64FWP contains fresh information as every month
 +       ​updated news and special projects. You can find help on topics as
 +       X1541 transferring and amaze your self with articles like how to
 +       ​connect a joypad to a C64 and etc. Read interesting articles, find
 +       ​interesting links and e-mail addresses and much more. Yep, It’s
 +       the original Sky Networks, The C64 Fanatics Web Page.
 +     * GEOS Files on the 'Net
 +       URL: http://​​timphelps/​ftp/​gfiles.html
 +       This site will let you directly download almost any file on the
 +       ​Internet. The links of the files are categorized in seperate
 +       ​fields (such as fonts). Updated more often than some other GEOS
 +       ​programs lists.
 +     * Commodore Connection
 +       URL: http://​​MarketPlace/​Commodore/​index.htm
 +       New Commodore Site. Support for Commodore, Message Bases, File
 +       ​Downloads and much more
 +     * Bear Technologies Computer Sales,​Software,​Services
 +       URL: http://​​beartec/​beartec.html
 +       We have been supporting Commodore since 1983 We do repairs on all
 +       makes of Commodore Equipment carry Software & Hardware Plenty of
 +       parts in stock
 +     * GeoClub
 +       URL: http://​​geoclub/​
 +       ​GEOClub UK/OZ home page. Information about the group and contact
 +       ​information
 +     * Browser Home Page
 +       URL: http://​​browser/​index.html
 +       ​Browser is a C128 80 column disk directory browser. Displays CBM
 +       and CMD directories including subdirectories and partitions. Run,
 +       ​Scratch or Rename files, Read text files, View BASIC, ANSI and QWK
 +       ​messages.dat files.
 +     * Get Started Using the C64/128 on the Internet
 +       URL: http://​​~gaelyne/​getstarted.html
 +       A friendly Q&A format WWW page explaining basics of cross platform
 +       ​computing and accessing the Internet with a C= computer.
 +     * The Internet for Commodore Users
 +       URL: http://​​tifcu/​index.html
 +       The Internet for Commodore Users is a book by Gaelyne R. Gasson
 +       and is the only C= Internet reference guide in this format. The
 +       site allows online ordering.
 +     * Type In Term Program
 +       URL: http://​​~gaelyne/​term.html
 +       A short type-in term program that allows those without a Commodore
 +       term program to transfer files from another computer. Suggested
 +       use: to transfer a full scale terminal program such as Novaterm
 +       9.5 or Desterm to the Commodore.
 +     * VideoCamFTP site
 +       URL: ftp://​​cbm
 +       ​Gaelyne Gasson'​s main FTP site in Australia. Mainly
 +       ​telecommunications and offline mail reading utilities.
 +     * Gaelyne'​s Microwave
 +       URL: http://​​~gaelyne/​links.html
 +       A sorted list of CBM and other links on the World Wide Web.
 +     * IEEE488 site
 +       URL: http://​​~fachat/​8bit/​hardware/​ieee488/​index.html
 +       3 IEEE488 interface boards, with schematics are presented: one for
 +       the C64 (original CBM), one for the VC1541 (orig. 64er magazin)
 +       and one for the Atari ST (by me). Software is included.
 +     * 80 Column Games for your C=128
 +       URL: http://​​~gah/​c128
 +       A few games for the C=128 in 80-column mode. Dominoes, Landslide,
 +       Name Flash, Stock Broker, Blackjack, High Rollers, and 1000 Miles
 +       ​(Mille Bornes). These come with a bootable menu and full
 +       ​documentation and compressed into a single 57k C= .arc file. I
 +       will also include (eventually ;) other shareware programs written
 +       by other authors for your c-128.
 +     * Peter'​s Commodore page
 +       URL: http://​​8bitar/​
 +       ​Peter'​s Commodore page with SYS PD/C64,C128 PD directory available
 +       ​online.
 +     * International Project 64
 +       URL: http://​​
 +       ​International Project 64 is a sister project of Project 64, also
 +       aimed at saving old Commodore manuals and documents for the
 +       ​future. We handle the non-English stuff. Features a multilingual
 +       user interface, currently in English, Swedish and German.
 +     * The Fridge
 +       URL: http://​​~judd/​fridge/​
 +       The Fridge is a large collection of 6502 source code. There are
 +       also programming tricks and tips, binaries, C utility programs,
 +       other programming related links. Finally, it contains a complete
 +       ​article index into both C=Hacking and disC=overy.
 +     * Commodore Users of Edmonton
 +       URL: http://​​cue/​
 +       The on-line home of the Commodore Users of Edmonton User
 +       ​Group.This club, active since August 1983, is for users of all
 +       ​Commodore Computers (excluding the PC'​s).We have an extensive disk
 +       and print library and lotsof knowledgeable,​ long time, users.
 +     * Centsible Software
 +       URL: http://​​sprynet/​cents/​
 +       We buy, sell and trade Commodore 64, 128 Amiga and IBM used and
 +       new software. We have been in business for 15 years. Over 3000
 +       ​titles in stock for Commodore computers.
 +     * AEG Soft HomePage
 +       URL: http://​​SiliconValley/​Heights/​5275/​
 +       The AEG Soft site. AEG Soft have developed and cracked programs
 +       for the immortal Commodore 64 since 1983!!
 +     * CBM Projects of Ilker
 +       URL: http://​​~filker/​cbm.html
 +       This site contains some technical documentations about mine
 +       ​software and hardware projects.You can find original and new lunix
 +       ​applications here. I also have plans to write code for other OSs
 +       (ace & os/a65).As for the hardware section, you can find
 +       ​information about hooking AT-keyboard and mouse to the C64, as
 +       well as various schematics for rs232 interfaces.
 +     * Neefis C64-Web-Page
 +       URL: http://​​le/​neef/​c64.htm
 +       This is a german C64-Web-Site
 +     * The Raven'​s Nest BBS
 +       URL: http://​​nestbbs/​homepage.htm
 +       The Raven'​s Nest BBS, Is a Commodore 64 BBS using the softwae
 +       C-NET DS2 v2.5 and running Comm-net, networking software Features:
 +       ​Message Bases, Files For All Computer Platforms (Shareware) &
 +       ​(Demos) ANSI Support for all of other computer platform friends,
 +       using a CMD 170 meg HD 1084 monitor jiffyDOS 2 1581 drives & 1
 +       1541 drive a 4 meg RAMlink and soon the SUPER64cpu
 +     * Antimon homepage
 +       URL: http://​​~zaphod
 +       ​Antimon homepage... Home of the lunetics in Antimon.. Antimon is a
 +       over 10 years old demo group from Norway and Finland
 +     * Azrael'​s sUpErDeFoRmEd Commodore 64/128 Page
 +       URL: http://​​~afn04314/​c64.htm
 +       Bunch of links plus a few pictures to look at and files to
 +       ​download. Will be growing soon.
 +     * Sandinge'​s Import & Data
 +       URL: http://​​~sandinge/​
 +       The only place you need if your looking for products for the
 +       ​C-64/​128. Located in Sweden.
 +     * FairLight - When Dreams Come True...
 +       URL: http://​
 +       ​FairLight - When Dreams Come True... The legend'​s site on the
 +       ​Internet with C64 and Amiga scene information and related
 +       ​materials. All about one of the oldest groups still around...
 +     * The Electric Mayhem - Laner'​s Commodore 64 Website
 +       URL: http://​​c64
 +       ​Laner'​s Commodore 64 Page - Home of the C64 "Most Wanted List",
 +       where you can add requests, and download the latest "​hard-to-find"​
 +       ​games. Also, links to various emulators and game-related C64 sites
 +     * Oasis Commodore
 +       URL: http://​​
 +       A repository for Commodore information and documentation.
 +     * GEOS Publication
 +       URL: http://​​~andrews/​geospub.htm
 +       This is the home page for GEOS Publication. A magazine published
 +       ​monthly dedicated to Comodore GEOS. Free sample issue available.
 +       URL: http://​​siliconvalley/​vista/​1852
 +       Long Live The Commodore 64!! This is is pretty much complete, but
 +       i am gonna add programing stuff and alot more very soon.
 +     * The C64 Games Archive
 +       URL: http://​​~pekkiz
 +     * Explore the Past - Computer Pics from the 80's
 +       URL: http://​​SiliconValley/​Vista/​2717/​index.html
 +       A pictorial dedicated to computers of the 1980'​s. Mostly
 +       ​Commodore-related but a few PC-related pics as well.
 +     * The Ol' 64
 +       URL: http://​​QuoadHoc/​commodore.html
 +       A small site dedicated to the memory of the commodore 64. You can
 +       vote for your favorite games.
 +     * The PET Page
 +       URL: http://​​~foxnhare/​PET.html
 +       ​Description and pictures of the Commodore PETs and other
 +       ​interesting information Relating to the PET and Commodore 8-bit
 +       line.
 +     * the Commodore P-500
 +       URL: http://​​~foxnhare/​p500.html
 +       ​Somewhere between the B-128 and the Commodore 64 there was the
 +       ​P-500.
 +     * the Silicon Realms BBS
 +       URL: http://​​~foxnhare/​slrinfo.html
 +       The Silicon Realms BBS supporting the Commodore 8-bit community
 +       since 1987.
 +     * PLUSH@web
 +       URL: http://​​~truemper/​
 +       this is the official homepage of PLUSH. a little and lazy democrew
 +       from germany. u can download all stuff from us, watch some
 +       ​pictutes or simply have some fun.
 +     * The European C=64 Emulation Game Archive (mirror)
 +       URL: http://​​ftp/​pub/​c64/​games
 +       A full archive of old c=64 games in emulator format.
 +     * Carl Reilly'​s Commodore Page
 +       URL: http://​​
 +       A page for my hobby: Commodore 8-bit PC's (Mainly C128). My EPROM
 +       ​Editing software is available online for the C128 ;) Best viewed
 +       with IBrowse for the Amiga or Internet Explorer for the IBuM.
 +       ​Contains Frames. 800 x 600 Display also recommended.
 +     * Mirage C-64 Software
 +       URL: http://​​jawknee/​Mirage/​C64/​
 +       This site contains a pair of utilities useful to owners of the
 +       ​Ensoniq Mirage as well as a general MIDI display tool.
 +     * Commodore Country
 +       URL: http://​​~ccountry
 +       ​Hardware Sales / Software Sales Flat-Rate Repairs start at $35.00.
 +       ​817/​295-7658 landline / 817/​447-6974 faxLarge Selection of both
 +       NEW & USED w/ Warranty.6 Years of C64/C128 Service as advertised
 +       in Commodore World.
 +     * IDE64 Project
 +       URL: http://​​~vorlicek/​c64ide.html
 +       ​Cartridge interface for connection IDE harddisk to Commodore 64
 +       ​computer
 +     * Network by Comic Pirates
 +       URL: http://​
 +       The official Comic Pirates Online Mag for Acorn,​Amiga,​Atari,​C64
 +       and PC Sceners
 +     * Antique Noises
 +       URL: http://​​SunsetStrip/​Palms/​7271/​index.html
 +       Midi Conversions of classic Game Tunes. Enjoy fresh new Versions
 +       of your old favourites...
 +     * The Epyx / Summergames Homepage
 +       URL: http://​​SiliconValley/​Park/​3680/​c64.html
 +       What happened to Epyx, the creators of Summer Games? History.
 +       ​Interview with Stephen H. Landrum, lead programmer. Glossary
 +     * The Renegade Programming Group Homepage
 +       URL: http://​​~pegasus/​rpg/​
 +       The home page of the Renegade Programming Group, a Commodore
 +       ​64/​128 demo production team. You can download demos, see screen
 +       ​shots,​ hear Pegasus'​ music, link like crazy and more!
 +     * Revenge/​Omni Demo Distribution Site
 +       URL: http://​​~jgvotour
 +       The homepage of Da Bonestripper/​Omni/​Ex-Revenge with downloadable
 +       ​Revenge and Omni demos
 +     * Bo's GEOS Web Page
 +       URL: http://​​~bo/​geos/​index.html
 +       GEOS Page containing tons of pictures and application information.
 +       Also has developer page and projects page.
 +     * TomSoft Software Development
 +       URL: http://​​tomp
 +       This site is dedicated to programming. Focus is bent toward the
 +       CBM line and kernal applications more specifically.
 +     * Tweder'​s C-64 Super Site!!
 +       URL: http://​​tweder/​c64.html
 +       This is a very cool site that includes Commodore 64 emulators for
 +       ​Macintosh & IBM/PC compatibles. Also has games andother stuff!!
 +     * Martin Pugh's C64 Games Index page
 +       URL:
 +       ​http://​​SiliconValley/​Vista/​3468/​c64index.htm
 +       ​Contains hypertext links to most of the games contained on Arnold
 +       and 'The Digtal Dungeon'​ including the Rik and Blast archives!
 +     * Stringfellowhawke 64 Archives
 +       URL: http://​​majic/​
 +       The Stringfellow Archive site, has links to the best 64
 +       ​information and games on the internet. It also has downloadable
 +       games and a special adventure section. Special music and demo
 +       packs are sometimes uploaded and the site also has an Amiga links
 +       page.
 +     * C64 Picture Gallery
 +       URL: http://​​SoHo/​Studios/​6463/​
 +       Page contains some of the best c64 pictures released in
 +       ​Collections,​ Demos, or in Party competitions.
 +     * Commodore 64 - Den ultimata C64-sidan ;-) .
 +       URL: http://​​matslev/​
 +       ​Välkommen till ännu en hyllningssida till C64. Skillnaden mellan
 +       denna och andra liknande sidor är (hoppas jag) kvalitet och inte
 +       ​kvantitet. Jag har här försökt lägga upp länkar jag själv har
 +       nytta av. Allt från musik till emulatorer.
 +     * Gaelyne'​s Home Suite Home
 +       URL: http://​​~gaelyne/​
 +       ​Gaelyne'​s home page offering support for her book 'The Internet
 +       for Commodore C64/128 Users'​. New Users Survival Guide, Get
 +       ​Started on the Net, and more.
 +     * Rod Gasson'​s QWKRR128 Offline Mail Reader
 +       URL: http://​​qwkrr/​index.html
 +       ​Offline Mail Reader for QWK format mail. Requires 80 column
 +       ​monitor and access to QWK format mail (via BBS or using UQWK).
 +       ​Shareware.
 +     * Cheaters Heaven
 +       URL: http://​​~ccc6453/​
 +       The Only Bulletin Board, You´ll ever need 4 ya C=64 if you live in
 +       DK or dont mind long distance calls!
 +     * M64 home page
 +       URL: http://​​~md6cbm/​AnyWare/​M64/​
 +       M64 will turn your C64 into a synthesizer module. All you need is
 +       a MIDI interface.
 +     * C64 Game Guide
 +       URL: http://​​tekniker/​sh/​c64/​
 +       A huge site where you can get info on the games you played on the
 +       C64. It also contains screenshots,​ sid-tunes, info on programmers,​
 +       ​musicians,​ gfxartists and softwarehouses.
 +     * Ultima VI page
 +       URL: http://​​s06user/​csaa2031/​ultima6.ssi
 +       This page should answer questions like how do I save, does Ultima
 +       VI run with C64s, playing on a real C64, copyprotection,​ links to
 +       other Ultima VI related sites, documentations,​ maps.
 +     * Role homepage
 +       URL: http://​​SunsetStrip/​Towers/​6715/​rolepage.htm
 +       The rolepage for all your info about role..latest news,
 +       ​memberslist,​ history, rock & role online and a lot more!
 +     * le Geek
 +       URL: http://​​ben/​geek.html
 +       le Geek is about people'​s favorite games and the emulator scene.
 +       As the c64 is my favorite computer, it has its own section, with a
 +       SID page, keyboard gfx page, game descriptions,​ emulator ratings,
 +       ​links,​ and a game I wrote in BASIC available for download. What
 +       are your favorite games?
 +     * Operator Headgap Commodore Web BBS
 +       URL: http://​​c=ring.spml
 +       ​Operator Headgap BBS online 12 years, support for C64-128. Dialup,
 +       ​Telnet or Browser. Homepage is http://​​c=ring.spml
 +     * Classic Games & Commodore 64
 +       URL: http://​​laurence.h/​classic.htm
 +       4 games packs of 10 or so games on here as is the rather groovy
 +       CCS 64 emulator.
 +     * CHLB'S Home Page
 +       URL: http://​​c/​camaron
 +       ​Commodore Helpers of Long Beach (CHLB) user group is dedicated to
 +       ​supporting C-128, C-64, VIC20, Plus/4, C-16, C-116 and 8-bit
 +       ​Commodore emulation users. We are two user groups in one. The
 +       first a reqular user group for members to attend. The second is
 +       ​through the mail with publication and disk.
 +     * Commodore 64 Art Gallery
 +       URL: http://​​SoHo/​8811/​c64art.htm
 +       Over a hundred pictures from many artists and games. Submissions
 +       ​wanted. Part of "​G.S.Reis'​ Multiverse"​.
 +     * PowerHouse Productions
 +       URL: http://​​SiliconValley/​Vista/​7347/​
 +       The PowerHouse BBS on the Web
 +     * ARRGH! - The Retro Computer and Video Games Home
 +       URL: http://​​
 +       ​Information on classic computers, consoles and games.
 +     * Entropy
 +       URL: http://​​
 +       ​Official home page of the demo group Entropy. Light on graphics,
 +       long on downloads. New d/ls as often as possible. X-asm for PC.
 +       etc etc etc...
 +     * Maurice Randall Talks GEOS
 +       URL: http://​​arca93/​
 +       A site devoted primarily to Commodore GEOS and operated by Maurice
 +       ​Randall. New tips and ideas each week for users and programmers.
 +     * C-Net BBS Software Support Center
 +       URL: http://​​rmscomp/​CNET/​index.html
 +       C-Net BBS Software Support Center Site.
 +     * Legacy of the Ancients
 +       URL: http://​​~joellogan/​legacyparent.html
 +       ​Dedicated to preserving Legacy of the Ancients for the C64 and
 +       ​Apple.
 +     * VIC-20 Info page
 +       URL: http://​​wshrake/​index.htm
 +       ​Primarily a text archive of Vic-20 info, but with other things
 +       being added. The site contains a "​cartridge rarity and gameplay
 +       ​list,"​ reviews of 180 Vic20 programs on cartridge, a list of 455
 +       tape programs, technical materials including archiving software,
 +       and more.
 +     * BugSoft Commodore Software
 +       URL: http://​
 +       The official site of BugSoft, Creators of Centipede BBS for the
 +       C128 and v128 BBS software. Some FREE programs available for
 +       ​download also!
 +     * Webnav C64 Site
 +       URL: http://​​c64/​
 +       ​Deutsche C64 Homepage von Felix Winter! Hier gibt es Links zu
 +       ​Spielen,​ Demos, Mags, Tools, Emulatoren, Homepages usw. Top!
 +     * Ruuds Commodore Page
 +       URL: http://​​~rbaltiss/​cbm.htm
 +       Site dedicated to technical information on the older Commodores.
 +       ​Including several hardware and software projects.
 +     * Noesis Creation
 +       URL: http://​​id/​noesis/​
 +       ​Noesis Creation: home of Archaic Computer, dieHard back issues,
 +       and commodore & Atari support
 +     * CD-64
 +       URL: http://​​TimesSquare/​Lair/​4664/​index.htm
 +       CD-64 is the project to make the best CD of C64 games. Also the
 +       site to get HD CATALOG for CMD Hard Drives, and discuss games.
 +     * My C64 page
 +       URL: http://​www.beotel.yu/​~milos
 +       Site in Serbian about me & C64, some links, pokes (more to come in
 +       ​future) and my story how I got C64. Moja prezentacija posvecena
 +       C64 pokice, linkovi, i malo pricam pricu :)
 +     * Homepage of the Amiga-Commodore User's Group #0447
 +       URL: http://​​~alberonn/​acug.html
 +       This is the Homepage of the Amig-Commodore User's Group (CBM#0447)
 +       in Astoria, Oregon USA. We are a small group who do our best to
 +       help out "​new"​ users to the C64/128 and Amiga platforms.
 +     * Zukkans Place
 +       URL: http://​​~w-47749
 +       ​Euzkera'​s crazy and different webpage. Will make a touch to the
 +       scene different from the others.
 +     * Depressed Node
 +       URL: http://​​homepages/​depressednode/​
 +       ​Depressed Node is a BBS located in the Dallas, TX area. It has
 +       ​Commodore 64 emulation programs and files and is run on powerbbs a
 +       ​windows based system.
 +     * Files on the Internet
 +       URL: http://​​timphelps/​ftp/​files.html
 +       Lists of the many files that are on the Internet.
 +     * Commodore FTP Search
 +       URL: http://​​~mepk/​cfs.html
 +       If you want to find a certain file on the FTP sites you often have
 +       to search many subdirectories of many of these sites until you've
 +       found it. Searching will be much faster with Commodore FTP Search.
 +       CFS uses a database containing all filenames of these sites. After
 +       ​entering a search string, CFS will search this database and the
 +       ​matching filenames will be listed.
 +     * COMP.SYS.CBM FTP Sites List
 +       URL: http://​​timphelps/​cmdr/​ftpsites.html
 +       ​HTML/​hyperlinked version of the comp.sys.cbm ftp sites list.
 +     * Commodore 65 REAL Information!
 +       URL: http://​​outzider/​c65/​index.html
 +       Want the real scoop on the Commodore 65? Technical Info? History?
 +       ROMs? Pictures? Links? Welcome home!
 +     * Commodore FAQ
 +       URL: http://​​timphelps/​faq/​faqmain.html
 +       An html/​hypertext version of the Commodore faq that appears in the
 +       ​newsgroup.
 +     * Digital Excess homegrounds
 +       URL: http://​​~thomas.koncina
 +       ​homepage of the german game developing group Digital Excess
 +     * home of the hitmen
 +       URL: http://​​~hitmen
 +       ​hitmen internet hq featuring board graphics gallery, a huge sorted
 +       and almost constantly maintained link page plus info on the group
 +       and it's members itself
 +     * hitnav64
 +       URL: http://​​~hitmen/​hitnav64.htm
 +       ​probably the best maintained commodore 64 links index on the web
 +     * Terminator'​s Commodore 64 Dungeon
 +       URL: http://​​~blitz/​c64main.html
 +       ​Commodore 64 still rules! Check out my DownloadZone and the
 +       ​awesome pictures.
 +     * Magic Carpet (TheCommodore Ride)
 +       URL: http://​​SiliconValley/​Peaks/​7893
 +       Magic Carpet has tricks & tips for your 128/64, a growing list of
 +       ​Commodore links. Commodore software and hardware for sale,
 +       ​Software that I have written and/or modified to be faster or
 +       ​easier to use.
 +     * Commodore 64 BASIC games
 +       URL: http://​​SiliconValley/​Pines/​4935
 +       ​Thanks to a new friend out here, my old stuff from the last 10
 +       years will be here soon... Keep your eyes open...
 +     * The Unofficial CP/M WEB SITE
 +       URL: http://​​cpm/​
 +       This site is authorized by Caldera, Inc. to distribute vintage
 +       ​software produced by Digital Research, Inc., INCLUDING THE
 +       ​ORIGINAL SOURCE CODE. This site will be a clearinghouse for all
 +       CP/M software. That's the good news. Now the bad news. What
 +       ​original source you will find on this site is all there is! The
 +       rest has been lost to the ages for one reason or another. This
 +       site is user supported. That means that much of the software
 +       ​posted here was donated by various individuals. The postings on
 +       this site are not yet complete. It is the goal of this site to be
 +       able to post every operating system, compiler, and utility that
 +       ​Digital Research produced for the 8080, Z80, Z8000, and 68000
 +       ​processors (assuming we can find it).
 +     * Commodore 64 BASICs
 +       URL: http://​​SiliconValley/​Pines/​4935
 +       I have created games for the commodore 64 in BASIC. Come see my
 +       small library so far...
 +     * The NullVoid Triangle
 +       URL: http://​​hogewim/​
 +       This site has, or will have: Games, Links to emulators and other
 +       ​sites,​ Animated Gifs, Sids and tips and cheats.
 +     * SIGNALS
 +       URL: http://​​home/​haegar-synergy/​signals.htm
 +       The Siganls is a DISK Mag for the C16/Plus4 in english language,
 +       only some parts and letters are in german. You can find there the
 +       ​latest Scene-News from all over the world, infos about Plus4 GEOS,
 +       ​SUPERBASE and other programms, the newst Stuff, a lot of tips and
 +       ​tricks for Basic and Assembler and a chart list for the best Demo,
 +       Tool, Game, Coder, GFX-Man and Group.
 +     * Obsolete Computer Museum (Plus/4)
 +       URL: http://​​fun/​user/​tcc/​cmuseum/​plus4.htm
 +       ​Failed Commodore experiment. Actually, a very nice 8-bit. 64K RAM.
 +       Nice graphics ability. Pixels could be any of 128 colors (16
 +       ​colors at 8 intensity levels). Four software programs included on
 +       the ROMs. None of them were worth much. (The word processor could
 +       only handle 99 lines of text.) This computer was sold as a
 +       ​successor to the C64. There was another computer, the Commodore
 +       C16, which was a successor to the VIC 20. I have also heard of one
 +       ​called the C116, which apparently was a C16 with a membrane
 +       ​keyboard,​ like a Sinclair.
 +     * Commodore Corner
 +       URL: http://​​b01141q/​cmadr.htm
 +       *
 +     * University of Washington Commodore Users Group
 +       URL: http://​​~gibbsjj/​uwccug.html
 +       ​University of Washington Commodore Computer Users group, Seattle
 +       WA
 +     * The Bible and the Commodore 64
 +       URL: http://​​~biblecom/​index.html
 +       Bible programs and Public Domain disks for the Commodore 64
 +     * The Official C=64 Unfinished Program Archive
 +       URL: http://​​ResearchTriangle/​Lab/​1767
 +       Post your unfinished source, or download somebody else's for a
 +       good reference or inspiration! We need submissions!
 +       URL: http://​​~pstrelio/​
 +       Paul J. Strelioff'​s Personal Home Page is reached from Blue Sky
 +       ​Community Networks (FREENET) WINNIPEG, MB CANADA . . . Linked with
 +       CBM sites and Travel and :-) Humour!
 +     * C64S Europe Information
 +       URL: http://​​c64s
 +       ​Information about C64S, mailing list, FAQ
 +     * MJK's Commodore 64 & LCD Page
 +       URL: http://​​
 +       This site is specialized on Commodore hardware, tuning & repairs,
 +       and the Commodore Sceners'​ Address List (SAL)
 +     * The World of CNET 128
 +       URL: http://​​homepages/​cnet128/​cnethome.htm
 +       * Full CBM Color Graphics Capabitly. * System files are provided
 +       but you may edit them and create others to customize the BBS they
 +       way you and your users like. * Looks great in ASCII and ANSI modes
 +       as well, supporting ALL Computer Types. * True 2400 Baud Speed. *
 +       ​Punter,​ Xmodem, Xmodem CRC, and Y-Modem Batch transfer protocols.
 +       * 1700 series RAM Expander , RamLink, & RamDrive capilitiy for
 +       ​instantaneous program file loading.
 +     * Flash Incorporated
 +       URL: http://​​~w-55678/​flashinc
 +       The year is 1989 and the teenage demo culture is a few years old.
 +       At the moment, a coder is a real man if he knows everything about
 +       ​border timing, splits and DYSPs. A new talent is about to rise
 +       from a small Swedish town called Falköping.
 +     * The Beginner'​s Guide to C64 and VIC-20 Emulators
 +       URL: http://​​vic20/​faq/​index.html
 +       The Beginner'​s Guide to C64 and VIC-20 Emulators will help you
 +       with your emulator problems. It includes general advice, tips and
 +       ​tricks and information about files, file formats and other
 +       ​important things. NOW v.1.1! Now also in an HTML version!
 +     * Trantor'​s Almighty C64 Sight
 +       URL: http://​​Trantor/​c64.html
 +       ​Welcome to the TRANTORnator'​s all mighty shrine to the greatest
 +       ​computer ever made! (and get some cool games too!)
 +     * Apocalypse C64 Homepage
 +       URL: http://​​mberry
 +       A new site full of C64 games, utilities and demos' for you to
 +       ​download. Also, you can ask me to upload any C64 program that
 +       ​you'​d like!
 +     * Papillon Wells Vintage Computer Zone
 +       URL: http://​​SiliconValley/​Horizon/​1503/​
 +       A vintage computer appreciation site for the Commodore Commodore
 +       128D, 128, 64, 64C, SX64, VIC 20, 116, 16, Plus/4. Information,​
 +       ​files,​ articles, and a whole lot more in this sprawling web site.
 +       This site has a little of everything with frequent updates.
 +     * Icemans Commodore E-Store
 +       URL: http://​​~icebbs/​4sale.html
 +       ​Easily accessable to non graphic browsers, Commodore Software and
 +       ​hardware. If you don't see it, ask. All prices ARE negotiable. :)
 +     * Return of Micro-Bytes
 +       URL: http://​​~hijinx/​mb.htm
 +       Short one-pager on availability of Micro-Bytes magazine, and some
 +       ​nostalgia is waxed by the former editor.
 +     * Commodore 64, eine Legende lebt
 +       URL: http://​​~meb15717/​c64.html
 +       Eine deutschsprachige WWW-Seite, die neben ein paar Links zu
 +       ​anderen Commodore 64 - Seiten im WWW auch eine umfangreiche
 +       ​Cheatsliste beinhaltet. Ausserdem ist auch eine Most-Wanted-Rubrik
 +       fuer Spieletips dabei! Macht mit, Leute... :-)
 +     * Anchors Away! HTML Tutorial
 +       URL: http://​​~gaelyne/​anchors.html
 +       A How-to tutorial written by Gaelyne Gasson for Loadstar Letter
 +       #41. Describes how to create web pages, from the perspective of a
 +       C= user.
 +     * FCUG
 +       URL: http://​​fcug/​index.html
 +       ​Fresno C= Users Group
 +     * TIFCU Mailing List
 +       URL: http://​​tifcu/​mail_list/​index.html
 +       TIFCU (The Internet for Commodore Users) Mailing List. Includes
 +       ​archives of the mail list messages, and the current FTP Sites
 +       List. The archives are searchable.
 +     * Commodore Knowledge Base
 +       URL: http://​​~spectre/​ckb/​
 +       A document search engine allowing access to its library of
 +       ​multiple articles on repairing peripherals,​ technical data, how-to
 +       ​guides and more.
 +     * C= or nothing @ all
 +       URL: http://​​homepages/​ericwschult
 +       this site is currently under construction.... i am moving to
 +       ​Genie.... this site is not going to be updated until i get moved
 +       in ;).... however the pages are being updated on my C= and should
 +       be ready by that time :).... in time all gifs on my site are
 +       ​coming from GEOS draw ;)
 +     * Paxtron Corporation Home Page
 +       URL: http://​​
 +       ​Paxtron repairs computers and sells replacement hardware.
 +     * Mr. X's CBM page
 +       URL: http://​​~mrx/​cbm.html
 +       ​Text-only page with demo-scene links and a list of hardware the
 +       ​author owns.
 +@(#)basic: Hacking BASICs
 +           by R. T. Cunningham ( ​
 +@(A): Introducation
 +In this article, I'd like to introduce you to some concepts. ​ "​Common RAM"
 +is what I like to call the RAM that is safe and usable by both the 64 and
 +128 for either storage or short ML routines while BASIC is resident.  ​
 +"​Common BASIC" is what I like to call the code that can operate equally
 +well under either BASIC 2.0 or 7.0.  "​Common ML" is what I like to call ML
 +that can be used by both the 64 and 128 without having to be relocated in
 +As you may have guessed, I prefer writing programs that work with the 128
 +in 64 mode, 128-40 column mode, and the 128-80 column mode.  Obviously, the
 +code would work for a true 64 as well.  These modes are all available at
 +power up.  Although GEOS and CP/M (and some others) are operating systems
 +designed for the 64 and 128, they must be installed before they can be 
 +Before getting into some actual techniques, let's examine common RAM.
 +@(A): Common RAM
 +Remember, this is the the common RAM that *I* consider to be both safe and 
 +usable when BASIC is resident. ​ There is much more available when BASIC is 
 +switched out, but that's another story. ​ There are some that would argue 
 +that I missed a few locations or that some of these locations are not 
 +really safe to use.  I'll list them and you can be the judge.
 +These are BASIC work areas that occupy different starting and ending
 +locations, yet overlap in the locations listed:
 +   $0024 - $0030 (36-42) - 7 bytes
 +   $0050 - $0053 (80-83) - 4 bytes      ​
 +   $0059 - $0060 (89-96) - 8 bytes
 +These are good for temporary storage from within an ML program. ​ I wouldn'​t
 +recommend trying to use them from BASIC, the results are unpredictable.
 +The rest of these locations are free and can be used from both BASIC and 
 +      ​
 +   $00fb - $00fe (251-254) ​  - 4 bytes (zero page!)
 +   $03fd - $03ff (1021-1023) - 3 bytes
 +   $07e8 - $07f7 (2024-2039) - 16 bytes
 +   $dbe8 - $dbff (56296-56319) - 24 bytes
 +More or less can be available depending upon the use of sprites, fonts, or 
 +bitmaps. ​ For the purposes here, these are more than sufficient.
 +@(A): Common BASIC
 +The use of common BASIC eliminates multiple "​if"​ statements (which increase
 +the size of the BASIC program) and allows you to use the same code
 +regardless of whether it's BASIC 2.0 or 7.0.
 +Common BASIC isn't common until you determine whether you're running BASIC
 +2.0 or 7.0 (64 or 128 mode):
 +   ​m=abs(peek(65533)=255)
 +Memory location 65533 is the high byte of the hardware reset vector. ​ The
 +128 contains a 255 there, the 64 does not; therefore, m=0 translates to a
 +64 and m=1 translates to a 128.  For some applications,​ we can take the 
 +code a step further:
 +   ​m=abs(peek(65533)=255)+abs(peek(215)=128)
 +Location 215 contains the 40/80 flag for the 128.  When used like this,
 +the 64 will always return a 0.  For the 128, a value of 0 would indicate
 +40 columns and a value of 128 indicates 80 columns. ​ The total code would
 +produce m=0 indicating a 64, m=1 indicating a 128 in 40 column mode, or
 +m=2 indicating a 128 in 80 column mode.
 +If you load in an ML program at the start of the BASIC, you can use some
 +short code to perform the task.  To use it you would have to sys(ad) and
 +then peek(location). ​ Here it is:
 +           ldx #$0000 ;assume mode as 64
 +           lda #$fffd ;check high byte of hardware reset vector at 65533
 +           cmp #$00ff ;compare with 255
 +           bne chkend ;branch to end of routine if not equal to 255
 +           ​inx ​       ;increment x and assume mode as 128/40
 +           lda #$00d7 ;check 40/80 flag
 +           beq chkend ;branch to end of routine if not equal to 0
 +           ​inx ​       ;increment x and assume mode as 128/80
 +   ​chkend ​ stx  $03fd ;store mode number at 1021 (any free memory will do)
 +           rts
 +Although not necessary for this article, let's examine three different ways
 +to ensure the device number is 8 or higher:
 +   ​dv=peek(186):​ifdv<​8thendv=8
 +How about doing it without an "​if"? ​ Try this:
 +   ​dv=peek(186):​dv=abs((dv<​8)*8+(dv>​7)*dv)
 +In ML:
 +           ​lda ​ $00ba ;check the device number at 186
 +           cmp #$0008 ;compare it to device number 8
 +           bpl devend ;branch to end of routine if equal or greater than 8
 +           lda #$0008 ;if not equal or greater then make it 8
 +   ​devend ​ sta  $03fe ;as well as 1022 (or any free memory location)
 +           rts
 +Now that we know what mode we're in and have made sure the device number is
 +a valid one, we can code the BASIC appropriately. ​ We can also calculate
 +   ​n=198+m*10
 +In this example, I set n to equal the memory location that corresponds to
 +the number of characters in the keyboard buffer, 198 on the 64 and 208 on 
 +the 128.
 +@(A): Common ML
 +This is where anyone but an experienced ML programmer will have problems.
 +Unless you code without any "​incode"​ references at all, the code is not
 +transportable. ​ My thanks to Brett Tabke for explaining it to me.
 +Before going any further, you have to realize that the "power up" start of
 +BASIC starts at one location on the 64 and another on the 128.  To make it
 +even harder, the pointers are at two different memory locations, decimal
 +43 and 44 on the 64 and decimal 45 and 46 on the 128.  For the 64, the
 +values contained are 1 and 8 corresponding to 2049 on the 128, the values
 +contained are 1 and 28 corresponding to 7169.  The high bytes at 44/46 are
 +also considered the page numbers. ​ We can calculate the start of BASIC and
 +the page number:
 +   ​s=43+m*2
 +   ​ip=8+m*20
 +Since I'm going to be siting my ML behind the BASIC program, and saving it
 +with the BASIC, it's important that the final product will be loaded where
 +it was intended. ​ I can code for this:
 +   ​ifpeek(s)<>​1orpeek(s+1)<>​ipthenpokes,​1:​pokes+1,​ip:​load"​*",​dv
 +We check the start of BASIC and if it's not correct, we correct it and then
 +reload the program. ​ The "​*"​ tells DOS to reload the file last accessed.
 +This may seem like overkill, but too many programs designed to run on the
 +64 and 128 both seem to assume that BASIC is where it should be for the
 +program to run.  Of course, the routine probably won't work if you've been
 +working with programs that are memory intensive, in which case a reset or
 +power off/power on would be required anyway.
 +At any rate, now that we know that BASIC will be where it should be, we
 +need to code the starting address of the ML.  The only thing that has to
 +be known at this point is that the BASIC for the 64 is exactly 5120 bytes
 +lower than that for the 128 (at startup of course).
 +@(#)forth: Scott Ballantyne: Blazin'​ Into FORTH - An Interview
 +           by Jim Lawless (
 +Copyright 1996 by Jim Lawless ( )
 +@(A): Introduction
 +In the early 70's, Charles Moore designed one of the most powerful
 +computing languages known. ​ This language, Forth, was very different
 +from the traditional procedural languages.
 +Forth is a language which allows the programmer to change most any
 +facet of the language they wish ( including syntax extensions ).
 +Forth'​s rapid acceptance on 8-bit microcomputers stemmed from the
 +fact that it took a relatively small amount of memory to properly
 +implement the language.
 +As the 1980's were reaching their final years, Scott Ballantyne
 +released an implementation of Forth for the Commodore 64 known
 +as Blazin'​ Forth ( herein referred to as BForth ).
 +Many were surprised at how powerful BForth was.  The biggest surprise
 +was that Scott gave BForth away for free.  While many commercial
 +Forth implementations graced the market, Scott came out of nowhere
 +and blew them away with a superior implementation of Forth.
 +Scott was gracious enough to grant the following interview via
 +Q: What influenced you ( during a time when Pascal and C were making ​
 +   big press ) to write a Forth compiler? ​
 +A: I've always hated Pascal - the language is too restrictive to be 
 +   ​useful with all that strict typing, and the I/O primitives are a 
 +   ​disaster. I don't like languages that feel like a straight jacket, ​
 +   I prefer spandex. I wanted a fast, interpreted language to fiddle ​
 +   with the C64's metal, write communications programs and play with 
 +   the SID chip and do graphics programming,​ etc. I actually thought ​
 +   about writing a C interpreter,​ C is fun and a great language but 
 +   with all the libraries you need to make it useful (stdio, IO 
 +   ​primitives etc.), I was afraid it would be too big to do anything ​
 +   ​useful. The C64 disk drives were too slow to make compiling ​
 +   ​reasonable and interpreters are more fun anyway, so it had to be an 
 +   ​interpreter. ​
 +   At the same time I was thinking about writing an interpreter I was 
 +   ​trying to learn Forth. My background is mostly in Lisp, and that'​s ​
 +   still my favorite language (Scheme, actually is my favorite). I 
 +   would have written a Lisp interpreter but I'd been there, done that 
 +   and I'd heard about Forth for years - robotics has always been an 
 +   ​interest of mine and Forth is used a lot for that, so I bought some 
 +   of the Forth programs that were available for the C64. What a rip 
 +   off those were! They just *crawled*, not to mention that they were 
 +   ​riddled with bugs - really horrible bugs like incorrect ​
 +   ​multiplication and division routines. They also didn't have some of 
 +   the really clever Forth features like does>, and absolutely no 
 +   ​programmer friendly tools like a trace or watchpoint. Not to 
 +   ​mention no code to study, no extension to study, they were really ​
 +   poor. I kept buying these cartridges hoping to find one that was 
 +   ​usable and they kept making me madder and madder, so I finally ​
 +   ​decided if I wanted to learn Forth, I would have to write my own. 
 +Q: I assume from your references to Henry Laxen and Forth Dimensions
 +   that you had prior experience with Forth? ​
 +A: Not really - as you see above. I ordered all the back issues of 
 +   Forth dimensions that I could, since I wanted to do things right 
 +   and that seemed to be the way to understand things. I got a lot of 
 +   ​documents about Forth-79, Forth-83 and etc. Halfway through the 
 +   ​writing of the Blazin'​ Forth, I heard about Laxen'​s compiler, got a 
 +   copy of it and I learned a lot from it. The way the block buffers ​
 +   are implemented,​ in particular, are modeled on the way Laxen did 
 +   ​things. That's a very clean, very nice piece of work. I admired ​
 +   that compiler a lot. But Blazin'​ Forth is a lot different. I admire ​
 +   clean code and beautiful designs, but you always have to remember ​
 +   the old saw: "If you make it fast and ugly, people will hate you. 
 +   If you make it beautiful but slow, nobody will use it." So there'​s ​
 +   a tradeoff one often has to make, especially on a small machine ​
 +   like the 64. Not to say that BForth is ugly, you understand, you 
 +   just wouldn'​t take it home to momma. ​
 +Q: In building BForth, you had put together a complete Forth-83 ​
 +   ​implementation with snazzy extensions. What led you to make the 
 +   ​package free-for-use rather than trying to make a commercial go of 
 +   ​it? ​
 +A: I thought about marketing it. I probably could have made quite a 
 +   bit from it, but I was still simmering from all the money I'd spent 
 +   on those awful implementations in the cartridges. Remember that 
 +   part of my motivation here was revenge. Also, around that time 
 +   ​Stallman had just announced the GNU project. Having been at MIT and 
 +   ​immersed in what later came to be called the hacker culture gave me 
 +   a desire to encourage that sort of thing in general, and 
 +   ​specifically on the 64. Why not? So I took the GNU manifesto and 
 +   wrote this gigantic legal document based on the manifesto and gave 
 +   the whole mess away for free. Besides, it's a lot more fun creating ​
 +   ​something than it is selling it, and I wasn't sure I wanted to 
 +   spend years supporting any one piece of software, which I would 
 +   have felt duty bound to do if I sold the thing. There were other 
 +   ​projects I wanted to go on to. There were a lot of reasons, some 
 +   ​idealistic and some just plain selfish. ​
 +Q: In the documentation accompanying BForth, a reference is made to a 
 +   ​version for the Commodore 128 supporting a number of features ​
 +   ​including multitasking. Did this project ever see the light of day? 
 +A: Actually, the 64 version was multitasking originally. There wasn'​t ​
 +   ​enough room to support that and the rest of the stuff (like the 
 +   sound and graphics words) so I took it out. I think it was a 
 +   ​mistake to axe the U area like I did, though. If I hadn't done 
 +   that, some people could have written a tasker on top of what I gave 
 +   them. Not a gigantic mistake, but it would have been better if I 
 +   left it in. Remember that the traditional Forth multitasking is 
 +   ​cooperative. Not sure I agree with that... ​
 +   I bought a 128, actually I just sold it a couple of years ago. 
 +   Right around the time I was getting around to writing a Forth for 
 +   it the Amiga came out and just blew me away. I never got back to 
 +   the 128. The Amiga was great - what a shame that it was so poorly ​
 +   ​marketed. I worked on the ARP project and a lot of that code made 
 +   it into the Amiga operating system, which was gratifying. Also, 
 +   ​Commodore did pay us for that work, although it started out as 
 +   ​another free project. I worked on that with a guy named Charly ​
 +   ​Heath. We never met - I could sit across the table from Cheath ​
 +   ​(that'​s what I called him) and never know it, all the work was done 
 +   over the net. We were in daily contact and Cheath was a *great* ​
 +   ​programmer,​ also a very nice guy. It was interesting,​ but getting ​
 +   close to Commodore at that particular time was not the best thing. ​
 +   To tell you the truth it made me ill, there was a lot of ugly 
 +   ​politics and bad decision making at the time, so I lost interest in 
 +   doing stuff for people on the Amiga. I still have an Amiga though. ​
 +   I wrote an interesting operating system for it based on Lisp. It'​s ​
 +   like an Amiga Lisp machine, it acts a lot like the original Lisp 
 +   ​machine,​ if you ever saw it. I have a good chunk of a Smalltalk ​
 +   ​programming system written on it too - graphics interface and 
 +   ​everything. Really cool. Every now and then I pull it out and 
 +   ​fiddle with it. I never released any of this code and then the 
 +   ​company collapsed and there went my motivation to polish it up. I 
 +   ​don'​t mind rough edges, but when I release something I want it to 
 +   be as close to perfect as possible. ​
 +Q: There are a lot of Amigoids out there watching what VisCorp will do 
 +   now that they own the rights to the Amiga. Is there a chance that 
 +   your Lisp and Smalltalk will see the light of day for this die-hard ​
 +   group of Amiga fanatics? ​
 +A: I suppose it's possible. I only have a 2000 - it has a 68020 card 
 +   with 2 megs of memory, but I sort of feel like with the 3000-4000 ​
 +   ​people wouldn'​t be that interested in code that was developed on 
 +   the 2000, also the new graphics modes that are available on the 
 +   later machines I don't have. Maybe I'm wrong. Doing this interview ​
 +   has got me interested in it again, I worked on the small talk stuff 
 +   this weekend, as a matter of fact. Who knows? ​
 +Q: What tools did you use to develop BForth? ( A metacompiler or pure 
 +   ​assembler?​ ) 
 +A: I wrote my own assembler and linker. The assembler looked a lot 
 +   like Lisp, the linker was very primitive really, just ran through ​
 +   and resolved references, it couldn'​t really move stuff around like 
 +   a real linker can. It did make a cross reference though.. The 
 +   ​assembler was actually rather nice. Some people wanted it, but I 
 +   never got around to polishing it up and documenting it to release ​
 +   ​it. ​
 +   I have never been taken with the Forth metacompilers,​ but perhaps I 
 +   ​don'​t understand them enough. ​
 +Q: What sort of feedback did you receive from the general public ​
 +   ​pertaining to your compiler? ​
 +A: Well, it was great. I was amazed. I thought maybe 10 people in the 
 +   world would be interested in a Forth compiler. I had a Compuserve ​
 +   ​account back then and it was first uploaded to the C64 forum there, ​
 +   along with the source for the higher level words and all the 
 +   ​documentation. It was quite a lot. It took forver for the sysops to 
 +   make it public - nobody said anything but I think they were 
 +   ​checking around to make sure I hadn't ripped it off. I guess it was 
 +   a pretty unheard of thing to do, just give away a major piece of 
 +   ​software like that. Anyway, once it was released the response was 
 +   ​fantastic - it ripped across the country and I got tons of mail. 
 +   ​I'​ve never received so much mail from people. The most satisfying ​
 +   mail was from Forth programmers who said things like "I took my 
 +   Forth cartridge out in the yard and drove a knife through it"​. ​
 +   ​Revenge. It's so sweet... ​
 +   And people sent me presents - some guys in California figured out 
 +   how to make a self booting cartridge out of it and sent me a 
 +   ​Blazin'​ Forth self bootable cartridge. That was really nice. There 
 +   were even some commercial products based on it - you could do a 
 +   ​save-Forth and lock people out of the Forth system, so it just 
 +   ​looked like an application. There was a communications program, and 
 +   some kind of cad system. I have no idea how well they did, but the 
 +   ​programmers sent me complimentary copies. ​
 +   Some kid at CMU wrote a VAX Forth compiler based on BForth for a 
 +   ​dissertation and sent me a tape and a printout. I kept it here for 
 +   a long time, but I don't own a VAX and eventually got rid of it. I 
 +   got BForth tshirts and of course millions and millions of 
 +   ​questions. ​
 +   I got some hate mail too. 
 +Q: What sort of hate-mail? ​
 +A: The sort you always get. I got some from libertarians who I had 
 +   ​offended by giving it away, I got some from people who hated Forth 
 +   and thought I should have written something else, I got some from 
 +   ​people who had downloaded it and couldn'​t make it work. I'd try to 
 +   help them, but sometimes it just didn't work for them. In many 
 +   cases I had no idea why, they couldn'​t tell me, just `it didn'​t ​
 +   ​work'​. I never got any mail from people who had written Forth'​s for 
 +   ​commercial use - I was surprised at that. 
 +Q: I've seen nearly constant battles on net conferences between the 
 +   Forth camp and the Pascal/​Modula camp. Did you encounter any 
 +   "​language bigots"​ in the early days of BForth? ​
 +A: Oh sure, you always do. Frankly I think all these language wars are 
 +   ​misguided. I hate Pascal, but I don't have a problem if you use it. 
 +   Why should I? I've never understood that. There are languages which 
 +   are too brain dead to be taken seriously, but I still don't have a 
 +   ​problem if people want to use them. I think it must be either not 
 +   ​enough to do, or some kind of insecurity. ​
 +Q: What positive feedback did you receive about BForth? ​
 +A: People wrote tons of really useful software in it and I got copies ​
 +   of all of it. 
 +   The nice thing too was that there were so few bug reports. ​
 +   ​Actually,​ there was only one bug ever reported from Blazin'​ Forth, ​
 +   and I found that myself and uploaded a patch. To tell the truth, ​
 +   there is one other bug in that program, I discovered it years 
 +   ​later. It's actually a bug in the assembler - there was a garbage ​
 +   line that should have triggered an error but didn'​t,​ it assembled ​
 +   ​garbage. But the nature of the bug is such that it actually is only 
 +   ​triggered extremely rarely. No one has ever reported it. Hehe! 
 +   And this is an interesting point: I learned a lot from writing that 
 +   thing and one of the things I learned was the value of programmers ​
 +   being involved in every aspect, from design to coding to writing ​
 +   the manuals to testing. Writing the manuals not only uncovered a 
 +   lot of bugs as I was thinking up examples, it also suggested ​
 +   ​various improvements. But the biggest applause has to go to my 
 +   ​girlfriend - we are still together, incidentally. She's the 
 +   ​greatest. She's a musician and was curious about all this computer ​
 +   ​stuff,​ and remember that I wanted people to be able to learn Forth 
 +   from scratch - the documentation,​ everything was designed to make 
 +   it possible and easy to learn Forth from Brodies book, which was 
 +   the most common text. 
 +   So I gave her the Forth compiler, the documentation and the Brodie ​
 +   book, and she taught herself Forth. She found tons of bugs, but 
 +   when she was done, she had learned Forth, I had a debugged system ​
 +   and I was pretty pleased, all in all. I'm sure this is one of the 
 +   ​reason that people liked it so much - I got a lot of mail from 
 +   ​people who said "​I'​ve tried so many times to learn this language, ​
 +   and now I have." ​
 +   There was lots more stuff - I got pictures of people holding up 
 +   signs that said "We Love Blazin Forth!"​. It was very gratifying. ​
 +   Much nicer than money. People were very appreciative and tried to 
 +   show it. 
 +Q: Would you recommend Forth as a first computer language? ​
 +A: I think any modern computer language is a good one. Forth would be 
 +   good. A lot of teaching beginners has to do with language ​
 +   ​independent features such as feedback and debuggers and stuff. It'​s ​
 +   not very rewarding for most first timers to do !'s and @'s or write 
 +   '​hello world' programs. Big deal. That's one reason I put the 
 +   ​turtle graphics into BForth - you can see loops and larger ​
 +   ​structures,​ it makes sense and it's rewarding, so I'm a big 
 +   ​supporter of that sort of thing for beginning programming. I still 
 +   ​remain partial to the Lisp class of languages, so if I were 
 +   ​teaching I would probably use those for a beginner, but the same 
 +   ​comments apply to those. ​
 +Q: If you could do anything differently in the development and 
 +   ​distribution of BForth, what would you do? 
 +A: Oh, I made some mistakes. I should have preserved the U area, like 
 +   I said before. Today I would probably not implement the Forth block 
 +   ​system,​ I'd use files instead. I never liked that, to tell the 
 +   ​truth. It made a certain sense with the 64 disk drives, and the 
 +   code I wrote is optimized for the rotational speed of those things, ​
 +   but I think it leads to better programming to just store your code 
 +   in a file with a name. I would have added more hooks, I think I 
 +   would have added a '​junk'​ dictionary for things like defining words 
 +   or the assembler and editor that you could make 'go away' once you 
 +   were done. That would have saved a lot of memory, I think. ​
 +   You always think about stuff like this for all your projects. ​
 +   ​Software is never really finished and I could go on forever about 
 +   just about every program I've ever written. Even about little ​
 +   ​things. For example, I *really* regret not special casing ​
 +   ​horizontal and vertical lines in the graphics line drawing ​
 +   ​function. A little thing, but it was a mistake and it urks me. I 
 +   ​thought about it at the time, but the compiler was getting so big, 
 +   but I still think it was a mistake. Just last week, I was working ​
 +   on some medical imaging system software and I was writing a line 
 +   ​drawing function, and I special cased the horizontal and vertical ​
 +   ​lines,​ and guess what I thought: "Shoot - I wish I'd done that with 
 +   that Forth compiler..." ​
 +Q: What sort of work are you doing nowadays? ​
 +A: Whatever interests me. I have my own company "​ScotSoft Research" ​
 +   and I do pretty interesting work for which I charge. A lot of Unix
 +   work, custom applications,​ kernel enhancements,​ etc. I have donated
 +   a lot of code to the GNU project and still admire what they do, and
 +   I still love to write software. For my own pleasure and improvement
 +   I still have lots of projects. At some point I'll finish my
 +   ​Smalltalk system for Unix computers. In a lot of ways the Amiga
 +   ​version is better - there'​s a lot to be said for taking over the
 +   ​machine. ​ Maybe I'm a control freak, but there'​s a real rush in
 +   ​writing something 'from the metal up'. You can't do that with a
 +   Unix box and expect people to use it.
 +   ​Still,​ I like Unix a lot. The computers I've bought for my company
 +   are all Suns. IBMPCs and MACs make me puke. The Amiga, as good as
 +   it was, would have been a better machine if it had paid more
 +   ​attention to Unix...
 +Q: Is Forth still something that you use on a regular basis? ​
 +A: Nope. Haven'​t used Forth in years, except for the odd command at a 
 +   the Sun monitor prompt. That's more a reflection on the environment
 +   I work in these days than Forth. It's a shame that the Forth
 +   ​community has let itself become so insular - you would have Forth
 +   ​compilers on Unix machines if there had been standardized support
 +   for libraries and a file system. Another weakness of forth is the
 +   lack of '​struct'​ - of course that can be implemented,​ but it needs
 +   to be part of the language definition to be truly useful.
 +   I still think Forth is great - I look at those micromint projects
 +   ​sometimes and think it would be fun to do some of that stuff in
 +   ​Forth...
 +Q: Was the C64 the first home computer you owned? ​
 +A: Sure was. The low cost + 64k memory and extra features made it an 
 +   ​inevitable addition to my household :-) 
 +Q: Describe your introduction to programming ( were you a comp-sci ​
 +   ​student?​ ) 
 +A: No - they didn't really have comp-sci so to speak back then. I was 
 +   in math and physics and got interested in using the computers for 
 +   ​practical,​ number crunching work. We were supposed to use punch 
 +   cards and take them to the IBM mainframe to be run by the priests, ​
 +   but I heard about the AI lab and started fooling around over there. ​
 +   Back then the lab was very informal, there were a lot of people who 
 +   ​weren'​t even associated with MIT in any official way there, high 
 +   ​school kids young university students (some younger than the high 
 +   ​school kids), it was pretty open. Anyway, I got interested in 
 +   ​hacking on the PDP series, and that started taking up most of my 
 +   time. You learned back then by reading other peoples code, asking ​
 +   ​questions and reading manuals and of course experimentation. My 
 +   math professors were not very approving of my interest in 
 +   ​computers,​ telling me it would ruin my mathematical career and 
 +   ​probably also lead to warts and blindness if I kept this up. Once 
 +   you wrote some programs that were useful they put you on the 
 +   ​payroll,​ so I made a little money, couple of bucks an hour or so. 
 +Q: In the March 1987 issue of Transactor, you published an article on 
 +   ​Blazin'​ Forth. I noted that you retain the copyright to the 
 +   ​article. Any chance that we could reprint it in C=Hacking? ​
 +A: Sure. That was originally just in the C64 forum on CIS, might still 
 +   be there - that's how the Transactor guys heard about it. 
 +Q: I found it odd that in the very same issue of Transactor, they ran 
 +   an article that processing speeds of various languages for a given 
 +   ​programming problem but did not include BForth as one of the 
 +   ​languages. Did you ever type in the benchmark code to see how 
 +   ​BForth stacked up to HES Forth, SuperForth, and C64 Forth? ( Not to 
 +   ​mention the C/​Pascal/​BASIC compilers that were faster than any of 
 +   the tested Forth implementations ). 
 +A: I did. What's more interesting to me than the fact that BForth ​
 +   ​outperformed those compilers is that a properly implement sieve in
 +   Forth outperformed that scrungy algorithm in 6502 assembler that
 +   ​somebody implemented. A lot of programming well is selecting
 +   ​algorithms and designing the program well, these language debates
 +   ​(higher level vs. assembler, Forth vs. C, etc. etc.) tend to
 +   ​obscure this fact, which is actually a much more interesting topic.
 +   At least it is to me. Which is not to say that learning different
 +   ​languages isn't good, because it is. Inevitably styles and ideas
 +   are imbedded into programming languages just as they are into human
 +   ​languages and some things are easier to say in '​C'​ or '​Forth'​ and
 +   some things aren'​t. Also, languages like Lisp or scheme can allow
 +   you the freedom to explore interesting methods of programming,​ such
 +   as message passing or delayed evaluation models which would be
 +   ​cumbersome in Forth. Once you have these concepts under your belt,
 +   you can use them in any language or dialect. But I think a lot of
 +   ​people are '​coders'​ and know languages, but there are very few
 +   '​hackers'​ or '​programmers'​ who are in love with clever ways to
 +   solve problems or squeeze more cycles out of a box. That's more
 +   work, but it's also a lot more fun and rewarding.
 +Q: There are scores of enthusiasts who are either discovering the 
 +   magic of the 64/128 by picking them up inexpensively,​ or they are 
 +   using one of the emulators available for various PC/​Mac/​Amiga ​
 +   ​platforms. What words of wisdom pertaining to BForth would you 
 +   ​import on these enthusiasts? ​
 +A: Wisdom. That sounds so boring. Have fun, experiment, don't be 
 +   ​afraid to crash the machine or do goofy things. Don't assume I did 
 +   ​everything right either, I didn'​t. When you think you know enough, ​
 +   pick a big project that interests you and start writing it. Mostly, ​
 +   have fun. I don't know if that's the key to life, but it sure is 
 +   the key to writing good software. ​
 +Thanks for the interview Scott!
 +How about it?  Have I made any of you curious about Forth? ​ Should we
 +start a BForth tutorial here in the pages of C=Hacking?
 +If you'd like to see more BForth coverage ( including the article
 +from Transactor mentioned in the text above ) please let me know.
 +Write me ( Jim Lawless ) at:
 +You may obtain Blazin'​ Forth from my Web page at:
 +   ​http://​​jimbo/​blazinforth.arc
 +@(#)trivia: Commodore Trivia
 +            by Jim Brain (
 +            ​
 +@(A): Introduction
 +As some may know, these questions are part of a contest held each month on
 +the Internet, in which the winner receives a donated prize. ​ I encourage
 +those who can receive the newest editions of trivia to enter the contest.
 +This article contains the questions and answers for trivia editions #33-41.
 +           ​
 +If you wish, you can subscribe to the trivia mailing list and receive the
 +newest editions of the trivia via Internet email. ​ To add your name to the
 +list, please mail a message:
 +Subject: LISTSERV
 +subscribe trivia-dist Firstname Lastname
 +In addition, the Commodore Trivia is housed at:
 +http://​​trivia/ ​        ​(HTML)
 +http://​​pub/​cbm/​trivia/​ (TEXT)
 +@(A): Trivia Questions and Answers
 +          The C128 Set:
 +Q $200) How many general purpose central processing units does a C128
 +        contain?
 +A $200) The "3 computers in one" machine only contains 2 CPUs.  The
 +        Z80 handles CP/M mode, while the 8502 handles both 64 and 128
 +        mode.  The "​3"​ in the C128 motto threw a bunch of folks.
 +Q $201) The Commodore 128 contains a MMU IC.  What does MMU stand for?
 +A $201) MMU = Memory Management Unit.  Technically,​ the 64 contains one
 +        as well, but it was always referred to as the PAL or PLA in the
 +        64.  The 128 MMU does more than the 64 version, though.
 +Q $202) What Commodore produced cartridge is specifically mentioned in
 +        the 128 PRG as being incompatible with the 128?
 +A $202) The Commodore 64 CP/M 2.2 cartridge.  ​
 +Q $203) The C128 introduces the concepts of "​banks" ​ How many such banks
 +        are recognized by the C128 BASIC?
 +A $203) 16. Bank 0 through Bank 15.
 +     ​  ​
 +Q $204) What version is the BASIC included in the C128 in native mode?
 +A $204) BASIC 7.0.  ​
 +Q $205) Can any of the BASIC graphics commands be used on the 80 column
 +        screen?
 +A $205) It depends on how you define "​graphics commands"​. ​ When writing the
 +        question, I was thinking of commands like BOX and CIRCLE that are
 +        written solely for use with the 40 column screen. ​ However, commands
 +        like SCRNCLR, CHAR, and COLOR commands are considered part of the
 +        graphics set.  Graphics commands that draw pixels on the bitmapped
 +        screen will NOT work on the 80 column screen, but those that merely
 +        set attributes or put characters at certain locations will work.
 +        However, don't let this fool you into thinking the 80 column screen
 +        can't support graphics. ​ It can.
 +Q $206) How many high-level graphics commands are available on the C128
 +        in C128 mode?
 +A $206) 14 high level graphics commands are included on the 128.
 +Q $207) In C128 mode, at what location does screen memory start?
 +A $207) It resides in the same location as on the 64: 1024-2023 ​
 +        ($0400 - $07e7).
 +Q $208) The 80 column IC in the 128 can display how many full character
 +        sets of 256 characters each at one time?
 +A $208) 2.  While the VIC-IIe can only display 1, the VDC IC can handle
 +        display opf both sets simultaneously. ​ That means a person can
 +        print upper/​lowercase and graphics/​uppercase characters on the 
 +        same screen.
 +Q $209) Many have scorned the C128's 80 column video IC.  What about this
 +        IC makes it so hard to use?
 +A $209) The VIC-IIe 40 column IC maps its configuration registers and
 +        screen memory into the C64/C128 memory map.  The 8563 VDC IC
 +        does neither. ​ All of its registers, screen memory, and color
 +        memory are hidden behind two registers. ​ These two registers
 +        control access to the entire IC.  In effect, these two registers
 +        are the "​portal"​ to the VDC memory map.  To modify or read a 
 +        VDC internal register, the programmer must place the register
 +        number in one lcoation and wait for the result to appear in the
 +        other register.
 +        ​
 +Q $20A) What number is the 80 column IC referenced by?
 +A $20A) 8563
 +Q $20B) What machine language addressing modes cannot be used with the
 +        80 column chip?
 +A $20B) The manual warns against using "​indirect"​ addressing opcodes by
 +        claiming their use could generate "​false"​ bus states that confuse
 +        the IC.  In reality, howevr, only the indirect mode of the STA
 +        opcode will cause any harm.  To understand why, one must note that
 +        the STA ($00),y instruction executes a read of memory before doing
 +        its write. ​            ​  ​  ​  ​   ​
 +        ​
 +Q $20C) The C128 contains keyboard keys not present on the C64.  What IC
 +        is used to read these keys? (besides the CIA, as on the 64)
 +A $20C) There are two answers. Aside from the ROM, the CPU, and the above 
 +        mentioned CIA, the VIC-IIe IC provides the extra 3 lines used to 
 +        scan the keyboard. ​ The C128 MMU IC provides the capability of 
 +        reading the status of the 40/80 key. (Thanks for Marko Makela
 +        for this info)
 +Q $20D) Following the introduction of the C128, a new version of was
 +        developed. ​ Name it.
 +A $20D) It is alternately called CP/M Plus or CP/M 3.0
 +Q $20E) Many people refer to C128s as 16k or 64k units. ​ To what does this
 +        refer?
 +A $20E) In question $209, we noted that the 8563 80 column IC in the C128
 +        has an internal memory map.  As such, the 8563 can have varying
 +        amounts of RAM attached to it.  Earlier C128 contained 16kB of
 +        this "​VDC"​ RAM, while later variations and some third party
 +        products increased this to 64 kB VDC RAM.
 +         ​    
 +Q $20F) According to the C128 literature, the C128 can be expanded to use
 +        how much memory?
 +A $20F) 640 kB.
 +        The C128 Developer Set
 +Q $210) The C128 Memory Management Unit is located at $d500 in memory.
 +        At what other address does a copy of the MMU registers appear?
 +A $210) $ff00-$ff04 contains a partial mirror of the MMU registers.
 +Q $211) How many MMU registers are are identical in the two memory ranges?
 +A $211) 1. The Configuration Register at $d500 and $ff00
 +Q $212) If you are writing a C128 machine langyage program and would like
 +        to issue a jsr to another bank of memory, what KERNAL call would
 +        you use?
 +A $212) JSRFAR ($ff6e).
 +     ​  ​
 +Q $213) How do you pass the parameters to the KERNAL call in auestion $212?
 +A $213) You store the parameters in $0002-$0008 and issue the call.
 +Q $214) When the C128 was developed, Commodore created a very useful buffer
 +        printing routine in the KERNAL. ​ What is its common name? 
 +     ​  ​   ​
 +A $214) PRIMM (Print Immediate, at $ff7d).
 +Q $215) For the routine in question $214, how do you pass the string that
 +        you wish to print to the routine?
 +A $215) You store the buffer, terminated with a null character immediately
 +        following the call.
 +Q $216) When the C128 boots, the Z80 gains control first. ​ It begins
 +        accessing memory starting at what location?
 +A $216) $0000
 +Q $217) How much ROM in the C128 is supplied to hold the Z80 power up
 +        boot code?
 +A $217) 4096 bytes.
 +Q $218) How many configuration presets can the C128 MMU handle?
 +A $218) 4.
 +Q $219) How small of a common RAM area can be defined in the C128 MMU?
 +A $219) Although the answer "​none"​ is technically correct, I was looking
 +        for the less obvious non-zero amount, which is 1 kB of RAM.  ​
 +Q $21A) How large of a common RAM area can be defined in the C128 MMU?
 +A $21A) 16 kB of RAM.
 +Q $21B) How many times does a disk drive get accessed BEFORE the C128
 +        finishes booting?
 +A $21B) twice. ​ (Once to attempt a CP/M boot, and once to attempt a 
 +        C128 boot).
 +Q $21C) What key would you hold down on the C128 during bootup to
 +        immediately enter 64 mode?
 +A $21C) The Commodore Key.
 +Q $21D) Name the first 4 keys on the top row of the C128 keyboard?
 +A $21D) Escape, Tab, Alt, and Caps Lock.
 +Q $21E) On what side of the C128 case is the RESET button located?
 +A $21E) The right side.
 +Q $21F) What is different about the C128 power supply connector compared to
 +        the 64 DIN power supply connector?
 +A $21F) The connector is square in appearance, although the voltages are
 +        identical to the ones provided for the C64.
 +Q $220) What 3 bytes must reside on track 1, sector 0 of a disk in order
 +        to autoboot that disk on a C128?
 +A $220) The abovious "​CBM"​ bytes must be present.
 +Q $221) Let's suppose you pick up a printer at a flea market and it says
 +        CBM on the decal. ​ However, it lacks the familiar logo and further
 +        investigation reveals it isn't a Commodore printer. ​ The printer
 +        was made in 1984.  What company sold the printer?
 +A $221) Citizen Business Machines (Citizen). ​ I had a lady inquire about
 +        a printer so marked.
 +Q $222) Which company came out with the first parallel printer interface
 +        for the VIC-20 in the US?
 +A $222) CardCo, Incorporated.
 +Q $223) If you boot up a 1540 disk drive and read the error channel,
 +        what model number is indicated in the power-up string?
 +A $223) V170.  Possibly, this is the code number for the drive. ​ Dunno,
 +Q $224) Who produced the very first Commodore diskette drive?
 +     ​  ​   ​
 +A $224) As close as I can tell from research, a company called "​Convenience
 +        Living"​ brought out the first Commodore disk drive, beating ​
 +        Commodore'​s 2040 by many months. ​ The system was a dual drive 100 kB
 +        per unit single sided drive. ​ The company changed their name or
 +        sold the unit to "​CompuThink"​ upon introduction.
 +Q $225) What company wrote the initial BASIC for the Commodore computer
 +        line?
 +A $225) Your archenemy and mine, Microsoft. ​ When the PET series was
 +        introduced, Microsoft'​s Gates and Paul Allen made big bucks licensing
 +        BASIC for small computers. ​ Microsoft BASIC was small and ran on
 +        minimal hardware, making it an ideal language to bundle with early
 +        machines. ​ Commodore modified the BASIC after 1.0 and Microsoft
 +        was not involved past the initial porting effort. ​ As an aside, it's
 +        rumored that Gates and Allen might have lifted the source for BASIC
 +        from the University computers where they attended, but who knows :-)
 +Q $226) What was the last modem Commodore produced for the 8-bit line?
 +A $226) The 1670.
 +Q $227) Which came first, the 2040 or the 2031?
 +A $227) The 2040.  In business, it's generally considered bad practice to
 +        deliver a smaller numbered model after a larger numbered one, 
 +        especially if the units perform the same function. ​ Commodore didn't
 +        use such logic :-)
 +Q $228) Which came first, the 4040 or the 8050?
 +     ​   ​
 +A $228) Again, Commodore rebelled and delivered the 8050 long before the
 +        4040 showed up on the scene. ​ This time, the reason was more logical.
 +        The drives served two different markets and were keyed with the prefix
 +        number of the machines they were marketed with.  The 4040 sold with the
 +        40XX series, while the 8050 came with the 80XX systems.
 +Q $229) Where were VIC computers introduced first: US or Japan?
 +A $229) Japan. ​ Commodore introduced the PET in the US first, but found the 
 +        US market "​fickle",​ so they introduced the VIC overseas first, since
 +        that market was easier to penetrate.  ​
 +Q $22A) Which Commodore 64 model came out after the C64c and sported
 +        an "​off-white"​ case?
 +     ​  ​  
 +A $22A) The C64gs (Graphics Station). ​ I am uncertain, but believe this to
 +        be a non-US machine only.
 +Q $22B) Commodore produced two "​Pong"​ type video games. ​ Name one model.
 +A $22B) CBM 2000K and 3000H models. ​ Both were simple machines with unknown
 +        processors.
 +Q $22C) What significance does the name "​Gortek"​ have with respect to
 +        the VIC-20?
 +A $22C) "​Gortek and the MicroChips"​ were characters introduced to help people
 +        learn how to use the VIC-20.
 +Q $22D) What person actually developed CP/M for the C128? 
 +A $22D) Von Ertwine
 +Q $22E) The 8563 VDC IC in the C128 was originally designed for another
 +        Commodore computer. ​ Which one?
 +A $22E) The Z8000 machine, another machine that never saw the light of day.
 +Q $22F) Name the single bit in the status register of the 6502 that can
 +        be set externally.
 +A $22F) The Overflow (V) flag can be set via pin 38 of the 6502, the SO
 +        pin (Set Overflow).
 +Q $230) What control character would one send to a Commodore printer
 +        to start double-wide character printing?
 +A $230) On the 1525 (and successors, like MPS 801, MPS 803, etc), chr$(14)
 +        was used.  A few IEEE printers also contained chr$(1), which printed
 +        '​enhanced'​ double wide characters.
 +Q $231) What control character would one send to a Commodore 1525 printer
 +        to inititiate graphics mode?
 +A $231) chr$(8)
 +Q $232) What control character would one send to a Commodore printer to
 +  end double-wide character printing?
 +A $232) On the 1525 (and successors, like the MPS 801 and 803), chr$(15) was
 +        used.  On the IEEE printers and the 1526/MPS 802 (a 4023 IEEE printer
 +        with serial bus connection, chr$(129) was used instead.
 +Q $233) How many registers does the VIC-I (6560/61) IC possess?
 +A $233) According to Commodore, the 6560/1 IC contains 16 addressable control
 +        registers, which is the number we were looking for.  How many registers
 +        are actually used internally is anyone'​s guess. ​ We also accepted 26
 +        as the answer, since there are 26 differint configuration fields ​
 +        within the 16 bytes of memory mapped I/O.
 +Q $234) How many registers does the Plus/4 TED IC have?
 +     ​  ​   ​
 +A $234) Multiple answers exist for this question as well.  The TED contains
 +        addressing to support 64 I/O registers, but only 34 are used. 
 +Q $235) We all know the 1541 stores its directory on track 18.  Where does
 +        the IEEE 8050/8250 stores its directory?
 +A $235) Track 39.
 +Q $236) If a program opens a channel to tape, reads some data, and a check
 +        of ST AND 32 is true, what error does that indicate?
 +A $236) checksum error.
 +Q $237) Depending on how many memory was added to a VIC-20, BASIC could
 +        start in one of three locations. ​ Name them.
 +A $237) 1024, 4096, or 4608.
 +Q $238) Commodore'​s first floppy drives used what brand of mechanisms?
 +     ​   ​
 +A $238) Shugart.
 +Q $239) If one sees a directory listing that starts with:
 +        "MY DISK OF STUFF,​MY,​2C" ​  What CBM drives could have wrote this
 +        disk?
 +A $239) 8050 or 8250 or derivatives:​ 8250LP and SFD 1001.
 +Q $23A) Name a color available on the VIC-20 that is NOT available on the 64?
 +     ​  ​  
 +A $23A) Any of the following qualify:
 +        ​
 +        o Light Orange
 +        o Light Cyan
 +        o Light Purple
 +        o Light Yellow
 +        By the way, none of these colors can be used for text.
 +Q $23B) Name two CBM computer series that used a real 6551 UART to do
 +        serial communications.
 +A $23B) The Plus/4, the B128, The 700 Series. ​ I suspect the 600 and 500
 +        Series as well.
 +Q $23C) On the Commodore SX-64, is drive 0 above or below the built-in
 +        storage bin?
 +A $23C) It is below the storage bin.  For those who created a DX-64 (2
 +        drives, the standard placement is to instal Drive 1 above drive 0.
 +Q $23D) Without looking, which key is located to the direct right of the 
 +        semicolon ';'​ key on the C64?
 +A $23D) With exception to the Swedish 64, The equals '​='​ sign. On Swedish
 +        models, the return key sits next to the ';'​ key.  On Swedish
 + keyboards, the key placement of the rightmost 4 columns is altered.
 +Q $23E) What does drive error number 72 mean?
 +A $23E) Disk Full or Directory Full
 +Q $23F) What was the model number of the first serial drive Commodore ​
 +        developed?
 +A $23F) Technically,​ the 1010 was the first unit, but I have no reports
 +        it ever made it past prototype stage. ​ And I doubt it was serial.
 +        The 2040 would qualify, but it was parallel (IEEE 488).  Therefore,
 +        the VIC 1540 is the first CBM drive to fit the criteria.
 +Q $240) What POKE is used to disable RUN/STOP RESTORE and also scrambles
 +        LIST attempts on the C64?
 +A $240) POKE 808,​234. ​ POKE 808,237 restores everything.
 +Q $241) What happens if you run a program in BASIC 2.0 and it
 +        executes a CONT statement?
 +A $241) The program gets caught in an endless loop.
 +Q $242) What happens if you run a program in BASIC 7.0 and it
 +        executes a CONT statement?
 +A $242) UNlike in BASIC 2.0, the statement is skipped.
 +Q $243) What diference exists between generating a "​beep"​ (Ctrl-G) on the
 +        C128 after RESET and after RUN/STOP RESTORE?
 +A $243) The volume is set to a different level on a warm start than on a cold
 +        start.
 +Q $244) In Commodore BASIC, is anything needed after the THEN of an IF/THEN
 +        statement?
 +A $244) No.  The command following the THEN is optional.
 +Q $245) In Question $0B3, we noticed that the 64's BASIC 2.0 placed two
 +        spaces between the error text and the word "​ERROR"​ in error strings.
 +        On what machine was this problem fixed and only one space appears?
 +A $245) The C128.  The C128D and C65 also fixed the problem.
 +Q $246) What disk drive was introduced to be used with the Commodore 64?
 +A $246) The Commodore 1541.  However, intially, it was called the VIC1541.
 +        Commodore was confusing.
 +Q $247) What upgrade to original PETs caused some machines to dISPLAY tEXT
 +A $247) When early PETs were upgraded to BASIC 2.0, the character set ROM 
 +        had to be replaced. ​ The problem was that some PET boards had 28 pin
 +        ROM sockets, while others had 24 pin.  The new character ROM only
 +        came in one size, so the models with the wrong number of pins on their
 +        board had to go without. ​ Commodore had decided to flip the location
 +        of uppercase and lowercase characters in the ROM.  ​
 +Q $248) Newer Commodore 1541 drives have a multicolored "​rainbow"​ pattern
 +        on the front decal. ​ Name the colors in order from top to bottom
 +        that make up the "​rainbow"​.
 +     ​   ​
 +A $248) Red, Dark Yellow, Light Yellow, Green, Blue.
 +Q $249) Commodore disk drives have flip flopped on drive LED color meanings
 +        over the years. ​ When the serial drives first appeared, green meant
 +        power and red meant access/​error. ​ With what drive did they swap
 +        the meanings?
 +A $249) The 1571 swapped meanings. ​ Later, the 1541-II and 1581 also used
 +        red for power and greeen for access, but the 1541C continued the
 +        alternate usage.
 +Q $24A) Most late-model CBM VIC-20 sport a DIN style power supply connector.
 +        However, early VIC units utilize a different connector. ​ How many
 +        pins did this early connector have?
 +     ​  ​  
 +A $24A) 2 (two). ​ American typically refer to the connector as a "​electric
 +        Shaver"​ or "​electric toaster"​ connector.
 +Q $24B) Although Commodore produced mainly 80 column printers, it did 
 +        introduce some "wide carriage"​ models. ​ How many columns did these
 +        printers have?
 +A $24B) 132 columns.
 +Q $24C) What is the "​nickname"​ for the Commodore logo?
 +A $24C) Depending on who you ask, either "​Chicken Feet", "​Chicken Head", or
 +        "​Chicken Lips"​. ​ I like the second one best.
 +Q $24D) When the Commodore 128 was introduced, a new Graphical User
 +        Interface was introduced to be used with it.  Name it.  (hint: not
 +        GEOS).
 +A $24D) Jane.  ​
 +Q $24E) A stock C128 powers up showing how many bytes free?
 +A $24E) 122365 bytes free.
 +Q $24F) Of those, how many can actually be used to store BASIC code?
 +A $24F) Bank 0 locations $1c00 to $fbff (57344 bytes).
 +Q $250) For years, Commodore owners have purchased Commodore printers with
 +        model numbers like MPS801, MPS802, MPS802, and MPS1000. ​ What does
 +        '​MPS'​ stand for?
 +A $250) Matrix Printer Serial.
 +Q $251) For the introduction of the 264 Series (Plus/4), Commodore produced
 +        a letter quality printer called the DPS1101. ​ What does '​DPS'​ stand
 +        for?
 +A $251) Daisy Print Serial
 +Q $252) What does CBM DOS error number 75 mean and which drive(s) does it
 +        appear in?
 +A $252) I was looking for "​Format Error"​. ​ This error occurs on the 1581.
 +        However, Todd Elliott mentions this also appears on the 8250 as
 + "​Format Speed Error"​.
 +Q $253) What does CBM DOS error number 76 mean and which drive(s) does it
 +        appear in?
 +A $253) Controller Error. ​ It appears first on the 1581.  It implied that
 +        the MFM controller was not functioning correctly.
 +Q $254) How many characters per inch does a VIC 1515 printer print when in
 +        normal mode?
 +A $254) 10 cpi.
 +Q $255) How large (in bytes) is the internal VIC 1525 printer buffer?
 +A $255) 90 bytes.  ​
 +Q $256) How many revolutions per minute does a 1541 disk drive disk
 +        rotate at?
 +     ​  ​
 +A $256) 300 rpm
 +Q $257) On Commodore disk drives, where is track 1 located: outside, middle,
 +        or inside of disk?​   ​
 +A $257) Outside.
 +Q $258) Which Commodore 8-bit machine(s) came stock with stereo SID sound?
 +     ​  ​       ​
 +A $258) The Commodore 64DX (65)
 +Q $259) On the 64 and 128, which joystick port is closest to the power
 +        connector: 1 or 2?
 +A $259) Joystick Port 2
 +Q $25A) The Commodore 1520 plotter can print in how many colors?
 +A $25A) 4 colors. ​ Default colors are red, green, blue, and black.
 +Q $25B) The 8050 disk drive creates how many tracks on a floppy disk?
 +A $25B) 77
 +Q $25C) What dot matrix printer matches the color scheme of the CBM Plus/4?
 +A $25C) The MPS 803.
 +Q $25D) How many "​mirrors"​ of the VIC-II IC registers appear in the 64 memory map?
 +A $25D) 16.  The VIC-II only contains enough addressing for 64 bytes, so 
 +        the registers repeat every 64 bytes.
 +Q $25E) Which location in C64 memory contains the 6510 Data Direction Register?
 +A $25E) Location 0.
 +Q $25F) What is the significance of $fffe-$ffff in 65XX CPUs?
 +A $25F) Whenever an IRQ happens, the CPU fetches the location of the routine
 +        that will handle the IRQ from these addresses.
 +Q $260) In BASIC 2.0, what happens if you try to CONT a program after a
 +        program has executed a STOP command?
 +A $260) The program is continued from the statement following the STOP
 +        command.
 +Q $261) What is Drive Error 75 mean?
 +A $261) Alert readers will note this is the same question as $252.  The error
 +A $252) Alert readers will note this question is a duplicate of $252.  My 
 +        memory if failing. ​ I was looking for "​Format Error"​. ​ However, ​
 + Todd Elliott mentions this also appears on the 8250 as 
 + "​Format Speed Error"​.
 +Q $262) What does the Super Expander 64 command RDOT do?
 +A $262) RDOT(M) returns information for next pixel to be plotted using mode M.
 +        M=0    return X coordinate.
 +        M=1    return Y coordinate.
 +        M=2    return Color Source.
 +Q $263) Quick, what does the 6502 opcode PHP do?
 +A $263) Pushes the processor status onto the stack.
 +Q $264) When using the SBC opcode to perform subtraction without a borrow,
 +        should the carry flag be set or clear?
 +A $264) It should be set, since the carry flag is treated as "​-Borrow"​
 +        (not borrow) when doing subtraction.
 +Q $265) Name the all-important zero-page subroutine on the VIC and 64 that
 +        appears at location $73.
 +A $265) CHRGET. ​ This routine fetches the BASIC next character. ​ This routine
 +        is usually patched to allow new BASIC commands.
 +Q $266) How many I/O locations does the SID IC in the 64 actually use?
 +     ​  ​
 +A $266) 29 bytes.
 +Q $267) How many I/O locations does the SID IC in the 64 actually show up in?
 +A $267) 1024 bytes.
 +Q $268) How many blocks free does a newly formatted D9090 drive report?
 +     ​  ​       ​
 +A $268) 29162 blocks free.  The drive contained a total of 29376 sectors,
 +        implying that the initial BAM and directory reserved 214 sectors.
 +Q $269) Name the number of sectors per track on a D9060.
 +A $269) 32 sectors per track.
 +Q $26A) Name the only Commodore disk drive that used neither a serial bus
 +        nor IEEE-488 bus hookup?
 +A $26A) I goofed on this question. ​ Tghere are three answers:
 +           The Amiga external drives.
 +    The 1551 (connected via cartridge to PLus/4 or C16)
 +    The External Drive for the C65 (connected via nonstandard serial
 +    bus)
 +Q $26B) The Block Availability Map for the 8050 and 8250 drives starts on
 +        what track?
 +A $26B) Track 38.
 +Q $26C) On an 80 column PET, where does screen memory start?
 +A $26C) $8000. If you consider the B series to be PETs, then $d000 is also a
 +        correct answer. ​
 +Q $26D) What CHR code can one use to scroll up on the 8032?
 +A $26D) chr$(25)
 +Q $26E) On the VIC-20, 0000 to 0002 were used to hold the jmp xxxx for the
 +        USR function. ​ The 6510 in the C64 took over 0000 and 0001.  Where
 +        did Commodore relocate the USR jump vector to on the 64?
 +A $26E) 784-786. ​ The relocation causes an unused byte of zero page RAM at
 +        $0002. ​
 +Q $26F) The KERNAL jump table on the VIC and 64 differ by how many bytes in
 +        length?
 +A $26F) They are the exact same length on both machines.
 +Q $270) Many people lamented the demise of QuantumLink,​ known alternately
 + as Q-Link or the '​Q'​. ​ When did QLink oficially close?
 +A $270) November 1, 1994
 +Q $271) Name the vaporware Virtual Reality area that was to become a part of
 + QLink, but was never finished/​released in its original form.
 +A $271) Habitat, a role playing game designed by LucasArts (part of the
 +        computing talent of George Lucus of Star Wars fame).
 +Q $272) The QLink area mentioned in Q $271 was eventually scaled back and
 + introduced on QLink as what area?
 +A $272) Club Caribe, basically a chat system.
 +Q $273) The Commodore Punter Protocol was devised by Mr. Punter. ​ What is his
 + first name?
 +A $273) Steve. ​ Incidentally,​ the Punter protocol lives on in the IBM world,
 +        where Steve has a Punter BBS with echoes (like FIDO).
 +Q $274) What kind of product is the Skyles Flash! unit? (hint: most folks don't
 + need one.)
 +A $274) Serial to IEEE-488 converter. ​ It's used to attach IEEE-488 peripherals
 +        (used on the PET line of computers) to a CBM serial port.
 +Q $275) On early revisions of the 6502, the SO pin on the IC was labeled CPS.
 +        What does CPS stand for?
 +A $275) Chuck Peddle Special.... ​ Named after 6502 designer Chuck Peddle.  ​
 +Q $276) What Commodore system was referred to as the '​Z'​ Machine?
 +     ​  ​
 +A $276) The C900 Prototype UNIX System. ​ Commodore never successfully marketed
 +        the machine, which included a Zilog Z8000 CPU (hence the name)
 +Q $277) (True or False). ​ Commodore 64 compatibility was designed into the 
 + C128 from the beginning.
 +A $277) True.  Lead Designer Bil Herd, fed up after working on the ill fated
 +        Plus/4, spouted off to senior management about the lack of 
 +        compatibility killing the project. ​ His comments were heeded, and he
 +        took on the C128 with the mandate that it be compatible with the
 +        64.
 +Q $278) The 8563 VDC found in the C128 was originally designed for what CBM
 + machine?
 +     ​  ​       ​
 +A $278) The C900 machine mentioned in $276.  ​
 +Q $279) What was the "Theme Song" of the C128 developers?
 +A $279) The live version of "​Solsbury Hill" by Peter Gabriel.
 +Q $27A) Who developed the C128 version of CP/M?
 +A $27A) Von Ertwine.
 +Q $27B) How many Paddles can one connect to a Commodore 8-bit machine?
 +A $27B) Technically,​ 4 paddles can be connected, although only 2 can be read
 +        at any instant in time.
 +Q $27C) Does the B128 have joystick ports?
 +A $27C) No.  ​
 +Q $27D) Commodore file type 2 is PRG, and type 3 is USR.  What is Commodore
 + file type 0?
 +A $27D) DEL or Deleted. ​ Very rarely used.
 +Q $27E) What is Commodore file type 1?
 +A $27E) The very useful SEQ file type.
 +Q $27F) The original VIC-20 systems had how many pins on the video port?
 +A $27F) 5 pins.  After the 64 was introduced, newer version had 8 pins, the
 +        same as on the 64.
 +Q $280) The C128 has a real Caps Lock Key, but it failed to present an
 +        uppercase character for what letter on the 128 keyboard?
 +A $280) The Q key.  This problem only exists on first revision US 128 ROM 
 +        units. ​ As such, you can easily determine if you need a ROM upgrade ​
 + by trying the Q key on your 128.
 +Q $281) What one feature made the CBM 1660 modem immensely popular with the
 +        phone phreaking crowd?
 +A $281) Ability to utilize the SID IC to generate touch tones and other tones
 +        through the phone. ​ This allowed the 64 to behave as a virtual "blue
 + box" or "red box" and send the magic 2600 Hz tone that patched one
 + into the phone system.
 +Q $282) What does Timothy Leary, "the father of LSD" and Commodore have
 +        in common?
 +A $282) Leary was a C64 user and wrote articles for a small C= magazine based
 +        in Oregon. ​ However, I accept one technically true resoponse from
 + Roger Toupin Jr., who said, "Both are dead".
 +Q $283) At what speed do the platters in CBM D series hard drives revolve at?
 +A $283) 3600 RPM  Compare to floppies at 300 RPM.
 +Q $284) In question $189, we noted that COMPUTE. Changed its punctuation to
 +        COMPUTE! shortly after introdcution. ​ However, many years later, they
 +        changed back to their former punctuation. ​ When did this occur?
 +A $284) When Compute! Publicationswas purchased by the publisher of OMNI
 +        magazine, they changed the name back to COMPUTE. (note period.
 +Q $285) Tough one.  Finish the following Commodore advertising slogan:
 +        "​Advanced Technology Through Vertical ___________"​
 +A $285) Integration
 +Q $286) In what "​mode"​ can the Commodore 64 VIC-II IC access external memory?
 +     ​  ​
 +A $286) The UltiMax mode.  This is the only mode where the VIC-II can perform
 +        this feat, and is the same mode used on the ill-fated Ultimax machine.
 +Q $287) What Primary CPU was used in the CBM 500/600/700 series?
 +A $287) The MOS 6509.  Basically, the 6509 was a 6502 with memory locations
 +        0000 and 0001 used as 34bank34 registers. ​ Address 0000 was the 
 + execution bank, while 0001 was the indirection bank..
 +Q $288) How much RAM can be accessed on a 500/600/700 machine?
 +     ​  ​       ​
 +A $288) The 500/600/700 series, as well as the B128/B256 series, can be
 +        expanded to 256kB internally, 704 kB externally, for a total of 960kB
 + of RAM.
 +Q $289) When using the KERNAL call PLOT, is the upper left corner of the 
 +        screen 0,0 or 1,1 ?
 +A $289) 0,0 identifies the upper left corner of the screen.
 +Q $28A) What does PRG stand for?
 +A $28A) Well, the CBM DOS uses it as a acronym for PRoGram File, and Commodore
 +        calls it's technical references Programmer'​s Reference Guides.
 +Q $28B) when displaying information on the screen, what PETSCII character is
 +        used to turn the character color to RED?
 +A $28B) COde 28 ($1C) will switch the character color to red.
 +Q $28C) If you poke the 64 screen memory with 0, what character fills the
 +        screen? ​ (Hint: it is NOT space)
 +A $28C) The '​@'​ character, screen code 0.  The space is screen code 32.
 +Q $28D) When a BASIC or ML program initializes DEVICE 2 (RS-232) for usage,
 +        how much memory is stolen from the top of BASIC memory for 
 +        buffers?
 +A $28D) 512 bytes. ​ 256 bytes each for an input and output buffer. ​ That is
 +        why you must open the RS-232 port before defining variables. ​ The
 + buffers are taken from TOB (Top of BASIC), which resets are variables.
 +Q $28E) On what 64 computer model does [SHIFT] [RUN-STOP] load a program from
 +        disk?
 +A $28E) The SX-64 is designed to boot from disk by default, and some suggested
 +        the C64GS, although I can;t verify the latter.
 +Q $28F) What happens if you issue NEW in a program, like:
 +           90 PRINT "​HI"​
 +           100 NEW
 +           110 GOTO 90
 +A $28F) As expected, the program prints the HI message, then erases the
 +        current program from memory.
 +@(#)bits: Twiddling the Bits: The DataPump Plus
 +          by Frank Kontros (
 +                      "​DataPump"​ the 6551 ACIA Card
 +                   ​(C)opyright Perry M. Grodzinski, 1991
 +           "​DataPump Plus" contra "​SwiftLink,​ DataBlast, CommPort"​
 +                       ​upgrade by Frank Kontros 1996
 +Note: You are free to give away these documents but not to sell.
 +SwiftLink, DataBlast & CommPort are respective trademarks of their copyright
 +@(A)intro: Introduction
 +In the original "​DATAPUMP"​ card, many have found it difficult to find the
 +AA4890 DC-DC converter IC necessary to build the cicuit. ​ In addition, new
 +RS-232 drivers contain a built in DC-DC converter and do not require
 +additional voltage sources except 5VDC. (e.g. MAX 230, 232, 235, 237). 
 +This  chip  needs fewer external componets than the AA4890 specified in the 
 +original schematic. ​ I decided to use the cheap MAX 232. It usually only 
 +costs US$1.50 - US$2.00. ​  There are also many other chips, such as the 
 +Analog Devices AD232 and the ICL232. ​ which provide the same functionality as 
 +the MAX232. ​ The MAX232 IC contains 2 RS232 drivers/​receivers. ​ Note that the
 +MAX232A is not the same IC; it performs the same function, but requires ​
 +additional external capacitors. ​ I have revised the DataPump schematic to
 +reflect the MAX232 usage. ​ See the "​Hacking the Code Section for the Schematic
 +in GIF format (Reference: code, SubRef: dpschematic).
 +In addition to revising the circuit to use readily available components, two 
 +additional jumpers were installed: ​ J1 for $DE00/$DF00 (IO1/IO2) ACIA 
 +address selection, and J2 for IRQ/NMI selection (for use with fast IRQ
 +interrupt handlers, e.g. OS/A65.
 +Resitors R2-R4 pull up the outputs to logic high when no modem is connected. ​ This helps alleviate program hangups due to simlp0sitic modem initialation code.
 +If you intend to use this circuit on a C128 or C128D in 2MHz mode, substitue
 +an 8551 or 6551A ACIA for the 6551.
 +If you would like to utilize a clock generator instead of the 3.6864 MHz quartz crystal oscillator, connect the generator OUT to XTAL1 (6) leave XTAL2 (7) 
 +floating, and connect power to the generator as follows:
 +                         ​_________________________
 +                         ​| ​                       \
 +                         ​| ​ N.C.              GND  |
 +                         ​| ​ O                  O   |
 +                         ​| ​                        |
 +                         ​| ​                        |
 +                         ​| ​ O                  O   |
 +                         ​| ​ +5V               ​OUT ​ |
 +                          \_______________________/​
 +@(A): Integrated Circuit Pinouts:
 +                R6551 PINOUT ​                       MAX232 PINOUT
 +             ​+---------------+ ​                       +-------+
 +       GND --| 1          28 |-- R-/W          +cap1 -|1 \/ 16|- Vcc
 +       CS0 --| 2          27 |-- o2            +cap3 -|2    15|- GND
 +      /CS1 --| 3          26 |-- /IRQ          -cap1 -|3    14|- T1out
 +      /RES --| 4          25 |-- DB7           +cap2 -|4    13|- R1in
 +       RxC --| 5          24 |-- DB6           -cap2 -|5    12|- R1out
 +     XTAL1 --| 6          23 |-- DB5           -cap4 -|6    11|- T1in
 +     XTAL2 --| 7          22 |-- DB4           T2out -|7    10|- T2in
 +      /RTS --| 8          21 |-- DB3            R2in -|8     9|- R2out
 +      /CTS --| 9          20 |-- DB2                  +-------+
 +       TxD --| 10         19 |-- DB1
 +      /DTR --| 11         18 |-- DB0
 +       RxD --| 12         17 |-- /DSR
 +       RS0 --| 13         16 |-- /DCD
 +       RS1 --| 14         15 |-- Vcc
 +             ​+---------------+
 +@(A)note: Conclusion and Notes
 +The "​DataPump Plus" fully supports applications written for the Swiftlink, the DataBlast, and the CommPort ACIA cartridges. In addition, the new jumper ​
 +additions offer mre control over operation, and provide better Swiftlink
 +Good Luck!
 +@(#)error: ? DS, DS$: rem The Error Channel
 +@(e)trivia: Commodore Trivia
 +In The Commodore Trivia Article in Issue #14, the answer to question $1EB was 
 +completely wrong. ​ The correct question and answer appear below:
 +Q $1EB) What difference between the VIC-I and VIC-II causes VIC-II equipped
 +        systems to potentially operate slightly slower than VIC-I equipped
 + systems, all other items held constant?
 +A $1EB) The dot clock on the VIC-I is only 4 times the processor clock.  ​
 +        That is, the VIC-I can fetch 2 bytes for each 1 byte data (8 pixels) ​
 +        it displays, without stopping the processor. ​ But the VIC-II has
 +        narrower pixels, because the dot clock is 8 times processor clock,
 +        and as a result, it only can read 1 byte for each byte (8 pixels) it
 +        displays. ​ This is sufficient for fetching the character images, ​
 + but the processor must be stopped to fetch the character codes (and
 +        colours). ​ (Thanks to Marko Makela for this explanation)
 +@(#)vic: Technical Information on the VIC-20
 +         by Ward Shrake
 +@(A): Introduction
 +This document is a collection of pinout diagrams and technical notes, meant
 +to assist anyone who wishes to experiment electronically with the "​obsolete"​
 +Commodore Vic20 computer. Specifically,​ this document addresses the cartridge
 +or Memory Expansion port and related items, such as ROM & EPROM memory chips.
 +What kinds of things can you do with a Vic20? Well, how much imagination do
 +you have? The hardware isn't as limited as most of us probably remember it
 +being, so the question becomes largely one of what you want to do with it,
 +what your level of skills and knowledge may be, and so on. Here are some 
 +examples of things you can do ... but by no means the only things possible!
 +  - A reset button can be wired into the Vic20 fairly simply. This might
 +    be a good idea, if one plans to experiment much. The Vic20, or any
 +    computer, might lock up when you've told it to do something odd while
 +    experimenting. Simply use a momentary-contact,​ normally-open switch,
 +    wired between the RESET line and any port GND line. When you press
 +    the new button for a second and let go, the computer will reset. This
 +    is because the RESET line is active low, and your switch grounds that
 +    line. If you decide to do this *inside* your Vic20, remember you are
 +    now looking at the *back* of the port, NOT the front. Therefore, use
 +    the pinout diagram for a cartridge, not the port, to find the lines.
 +    Radio Shack switch part number 275-1547 or equivalent will work fine.
 +    ​
 +  - Make your own EPROM-based plug-in cartridges, in standard memory sizes.
 +    The "​stock"​ Vic20 supports up to 32k of memory, in banks of 8k each. The 
 +    first banks (#1, 2, 3) are contiguous memory, and can be RAM or ROM at
 +    your choice. The next bank is actually a ROM operating system chip, so
 +    that's the end of contiguous memory. However, the bank after that (#5)
 +    is another usable bank. It can be RAM or ROM; it is usually ROM, but can
 +    be RAM with one restriction;​ BASIC can't "​see"​ it as easily usable. (See
 +    the pinout below, for more information on memory banking on the Vic20.)
 +    ​
 +  - Archive existing ROM or EPROM cartridges to disk or tape, to allow them
 +    to be run from within a RAM expander. Most commercial cartridges were
 +    8k in memory size, with a small amount having been 4k or 16k of memory.
 +  - Modify an existing RAM expander, to move one 8k bank of RAM into the
 +    upper memory area, in "block 5". ($A000 hex, for all you ML junkies.)
 +    This is not anywhere near as hard as it sounds ... and if you want to
 +    play archived game cartridges as "​images"​ in RAM, it is necessary. To
 +    do it, just (A) open your RAM expander'​s plastic casing, (B) see if you
 +    have a bank of DIP switches already installed, and (C) if you do, just
 +    flip the left-most switch "​on",​ while turning the other 3 all "​off"​. ​
 +    (Note that this assumes you are using an 8K expander; if you are using a 
 +    16K expander you need to be aware that there are two side-by-side groups
 +    of four switches each; the left half controls the upper 8k, and right one
 +    controls the lower 8k bank.)
 +    ​
 +  - If you want to do the RAM expander modification mentioned above, but you
 +    find you do not have DIP switches already installed, you can do one of
 +    two things. (A) you can install new switches yourself, or (B) you can do
 +    an easier and more permanent modification,​ by putting a blob of solder
 +    across the two left-most half-circles on the PC board, and making sure
 +    there are no other half-circles in that 8k bank which are joined in the
 +    middle by a straight line or another blob of solder. If you've ever seen
 +    disk drive device number modifications,​ its the same basic thing here.
 +    (But if all this sounds too complicated,​ let someone do the mod for you.)
 +  - If you find you now have a RAM cart that has a row of DIP switches to
 +    control where its memory will be "​seen",​ and that cart has a fully 
 +    plastic (not metal) label, you can now consider cutting a rectangular
 +    hole in the plastic case to allow external switch-changing. This is so 
 +    you don't have to open the case every time you want to make a memory ​
 +    bank change. (The metal labeled carts are harder to cut, obviously, so
 +    you might consider swapping guts with another cart casing, if you like.)
 +    The hole needed is as follows ... but note that I'm referring to the edge
 +    of the cartridge'​s LABEL area, not the outer edges of the plastic casing.
 +    Put some masking tape over the label (to preserve it) and write on it, to
 +    mark where the hole must go. The bottom edge of the hole is 5/16ths of an
 +    inch above the bottom edge of the label. The top edge is 1/2 inch above
 +    that. There should be about 1.75 inches left, from there to the top of the
 +    label area. The sides of the hole are harder to measure, as you'll note
 +    there is some subtle inward tapering of the casing and label area, to
 +    allow some rocking motion while inserting/​removing carts from the Vic20.
 +    Measure from the exact left corner, inward 2 and 1/8th inches in. This is
 +    the left edge of the hole. Measuring from the exact right corner of the
 +    label, come in 1 and 15/16ths inch. The hole should be roughly 7/8ths of
 +    an inch wide. As with any hole-cutting project, start out smaller than
 +    the finished hole is supposed to be, and move outward carefully. A "hot
 +    knife" or dremel plastic cutting wheel will do this job fast and neat.
 +  - It is possible to make your RAM cartridge "look like" ROM memory, at the
 +    flip of a switch. This used to be a popular feature of various companies
 +    cartridge expansion port chassis',​ to allow archival images of programs
 +    to run in RAM, even if they are protected and would normally over-write ​
 +    themselves if they were found to be running from within RAM memory.
 +  ​
 +  - Make your own plug-in cartridges, using bank-switching techniques, that
 +    are much larger than the standard 4 banks of 8 kilobytes each. I just saw
 +    a posting on Usenet, that referred to someone'​s having made a cartridge
 +    that used 192K of EPROM memory, along with 8k of RAM memory. (So much for
 +    the memory limitations of the past!)
 +  - Besides creating new things from scratch, you can also modify existing
 +    ones. There is nothing that says that a hardware project has to be one
 +    made from scratch! One beginner-type electronics project: the RAM carts 
 +    made by Commodore came in 8K or 16K variations. But if you open one up, 
 +    you'll quickly see that the PC boards are identical in both versions. ​
 +    The 8k RAM cart is just a half-populated 16k board! I have not done it 
 +    myself (as I have 16k and 32k expanders already), but adding the extra 
 +    8K looks easy enough, if one had the right parts and the need to do it.
 +  - It seems entirely feasible to make a "​fastload"​ type of cartridge for the
 +    Vic20 ... that is, one that "​disappears"​ part of the time, leaving memory
 +    in a non-expanded state. One possible application example might be to, as
 +    I said, make a "​fastload"​ type of cartridge; in fact, years ago at least
 +    two tape accelerator carts DID once exist (Arrow, and Vic Rabbit). ​
 +    ​
 +  - Other possible uses for a cart like this might be to make a cart similar ​
 +    to the "Game Genie"​. In other words, where cart images loaded into RAM 
 +    memory are modified byte-by-byte,​ in some pre-calculated ways, to make
 +    immortal or "​cheat"​ versions of certain games. Or best case scenario,
 +    all cartridge based games! Imagine adding level selects to 15-year old
 +    games? It may sound silly at first, but what a hacking trick to pull off!
 +  - Memory dumping carts are one other possibility ... by that I mean carts   
 +    similar to the "​Snapshot"​ series, "​Icepick"​ or whatever. These would be
 +    very useful for examining memory usage, testing RAM carts, etc, etc.
 +  - "​Multi-carts"​ are also possible. In other words, many images of cartridge
 +    based software programs can be placed into one or more very large EPROM
 +    chips, in one cartridge casing. Modern memory sizes all look huge, when
 +    compared to the miniscule memory sizes of the past. One example: a 28-pin
 +    chip exists that is *almost* a direct pin-for-pin replacement for a 24-
 +    pin EPROM memory chip. So, its *almost* trivial to make an 8k cartridge ​
 +    be a collection of 8 x 8k games, or 4 x 16k games. Much, much larger
 +    chip sizes exist now, which would allow a hundred or more games in one
 +    cartridge casing. Of course, that's no longer easy, let alone trivial,
 +    but it can be done. It has been done already, with other gaming systems,
 +    in fact. (See the pinouts and notes below, for some get-started info.)
 +  - If you did make a multicart, one easy way to control all the extra lines
 +    needed for bank-selection and addressing, would be to use the modem port
 +    lines, with a cable from there into the cartridge. Sounds silly, perhaps,
 +    but there are already 8 user-addressable lines there, for input and for
 +    output, so why get fancier than you need to? This port should seem very
 +    familiar to C64 users, as there are a lot of similarities there. To use
 +    the port, as on the C64, takes only two POKE'​s,​ even from within BASIC!
 +  - Battery-backed carts used to exist, years ago. Those should not be too
 +    hard to make again. In fact, some RAM carts have such large capacitors
 +    inside them, that once you load a program up and turn it off, it takes 
 +    quite some time to get RAM to clear! (I thought I toasted one of my Vic's
 +    one day, after a soldering session. But I figured out what was wrong; ​
 +    all it takes to solve the problem is to wait longer when power cycling.)
 +  ​
 +  - You tell me? There has to be more ways to use this part of the Vic20....
 +So with all that said, I'm going to launch right into the technical specs and
 +such, and let you play to your hearts content! I'd love to see an article in
 +a later issue of C= Hacking, that put this information to use, and showed us
 +all exactly how you did it, step-by-step. Go for it!
 +@(A)diag1: Pinout diagram #1: 
 +           ​Memory Expansion port connector of the Vic20 computer
 +Below is the pinout diagram of the Vic20 cartridge port, or Memory Expansion
 +Connector. Please note that this is NOT the pinout for a cartridge that might
 +fit into any port, nor is it a pinout of the User Port, which is something
 +completely different. This diagram shows the cartridge port's pinout, as you
 +face the rear of the Vic 20 computer. (The port is on the Vic20'​s left side.)
 +Bottom side of expansion port.       Top side of expansion port.
 +(This half is on bottom.) ​           (This half is towards the keyboard.)
 +          (This edge of the connector faces left,
 +          where the power switch and the LED are.)
 +                        _________
 +                        |  ___  |
 +         ​GND ​        ​A ​ |  | |  |   ​1 ​      GND
 +         ​CA0 ​        ​B ​ |  | |  |   ​2 ​      CD0
 +         ​CA1 ​        ​C ​ |  | |  |   ​3 ​      CD1
 +         ​CA2 ​        ​D ​ |  | |  |   ​4 ​      CD2
 +         ​CA3 ​        ​E ​ |  | |  |   ​5 ​      CD3
 +         ​CA4 ​        ​F ​ |  | |  |   ​6 ​      CD4
 +         ​CA5 ​        ​H ​ |  | |  |   ​7 ​      CD5
 +         ​CA6 ​        ​J ​ |  | |  |   ​8 ​      CD6
 +         ​CA7 ​        ​K ​ |  | |  |   ​9 ​      ​CD7 ​      ​(Memory Location:)
 +         ​CA8 ​        ​L ​ |  | |  |   ​10 ​     BLK 1       ​($2000 - $3fff)
 +         ​CA9 ​        ​M ​ |  | |  |   ​11 ​     BLK 2       ​($4000 - $5fff)
 +         ​CA10 ​       N  |  | |  |   ​12 ​     BLK 3       ​($6000 - $7fff)
 +         ​CA11 ​       P  |  | |  |   ​13 ​     BLK 5       ​($a000 - $bfff)
 +         ​CA12 ​       R  |  | |  |   ​14 ​     RAM 1       ​($0400 - $07ff)
 +         ​CA13 ​       S  |  | |  |   ​15 ​     RAM 2       ​($0800 - $0bff)
 +         I/O 2       ​T ​ |  | |  |   ​16 ​     RAM 3       ​($0c00 - $0fff)
 +         I/O 3       ​U ​ |  | |  |   ​17 ​     V R/W
 +         ​S02 ​        ​V ​ |  | |  |   ​18 ​     C R/W
 +         ​NMI ​        ​W ​ |  | |  |   ​19 ​     IRQ
 +         ​RESET ​      ​X ​ |  | |  |   ​20 ​     NC
 +         ​NC ​         Y  |  | |  |   ​21 ​     +5 Volts
 +         ​GND ​        ​Z ​ |  | |  |   ​22 ​     GND
 +                        |  ---  |
 +                        ---------
 +          (This edge of the connector is on the
 +          right, where all the other ports are.)
 +Pinout Notes:
 +BLKxx =  8K decoded RAM/ROM block xx, active low. See chart above for area.
 +CAxx  =  Address bus line xx
 +CDxx  =  Data bus line xx
 +C R/W =  Read/Write line from CPU. (Read = high, Write = low)
 +GND   ​= ​ System ground
 +I/O 2 =  Decoded I/O block 2, starting at $9130
 +I/O 3 =  Decoded I/O block 3, starting at $9140
 +IRQ   ​= ​ 6502 Interrupt Request line (active low)
 +NC    =  No connection
 +NMI   ​= ​ 6502 Non-Maskable Interrupt line (active low)
 +RAMxx =  1K decoded RAM blockxx, active low. See chart above for memory area.
 +RESET =  6502 reset line (active low)
 +S02   ​= ​ Phase 2 system clock
 +V R/W =  Read/Write line from Vic chip. (Read = high, Write = low)
 +@(A)diag2: Pinout diagram #2: A standard Vic20 cartridge'​s card edge connector
 +Below is a pinout diagram of a standard Vic20 cartridge, seen facing its card
 +edge connector. Please note that this is NOT the pinout of the port it plugs
 +into, which is shown above. The two pinouts are exact opposites, because you
 +are facing the port head-on as is, but you have to flip a cartridge around
 +180 degrees to be able to look at it head-on, facing its card edge connector.
 + ​Bottom side of cartridge ​     Top (label or component) side of cartridge
 +                         _-_
 +         ​GND ​        ​Z ​  | |   ​22 ​   GND
 +         ​NC ​         Y   | |   ​21 ​   +5 Volts
 +         ​RESET ​      ​X ​  | |   ​20 ​   NC
 +         ​NMI ​        ​W ​  | |   ​19 ​   IRQ
 +         ​S02 ​        ​V ​  | |   ​18 ​   C R/W
 +         I/O 3       ​U ​  | |   ​17 ​   V R/W     ​(Memory location:)
 +         I/O 2       ​T ​  | |   ​16 ​   RAM 3       ​($0C00 - $0FFF)
 +         ​CA13 ​       S   | |   ​15 ​   RAM 2       ​($0800 - $0BFF)
 +         ​CA12 ​       R   | |   ​14 ​   RAM 1       ​($0400 - $07FF)
 +         ​CA11 ​       P   | |   ​13 ​   BLK 5       ​($A000 - $BFFF)
 +         ​CA10 ​       N   | |   ​12 ​   BLK 3       ​($6000 - $7FFF)
 +         ​CA9 ​        ​M ​  | |   ​11 ​   BLK 2       ​($4000 - $5FFF)
 +         ​CA8 ​        ​L ​  | |   ​10 ​   BLK 1       ​($2000 - $3FFF)
 +         ​CA7 ​        ​K ​  | |   ​9 ​    CD7
 +         ​CA6 ​        ​J ​  | |   ​8 ​    CD6
 +         ​CA5 ​        ​H ​  | |   ​7 ​    CD5
 +         ​CA4 ​        ​F ​  | |   ​6 ​    CD4
 +         ​CA3 ​        ​E ​  | |   ​5 ​    CD3
 +         ​CA2 ​        ​D ​  | |   ​4 ​    CD2
 +         ​CA1 ​        ​C ​  | |   ​3 ​    CD1
 +         ​CA0 ​        ​B ​  | |   ​2 ​    CD0
 +         ​GND ​        ​A ​  | |   ​1 ​    GND
 +                         -_-
 +   ​Pinout diagram #3: EPROM # 2764A
 +   (This is a standard, 8K x 8 bit memory chip)
 +            ​
 +            ____    ____
 +            |   ​!__! ​  |
 +        Vpp | 1     28 | Vcc  (+5 Volts)
 +        A12 | 2     27 | PGM  (Active low)
 +        A7  | 3     26 | N.C. (No connection)
 +        A6  | 4     25 | A8
 +        A5  | 5     24 | A9
 +        A4  | 6     23 | A11
 +        A3  | 7     22 | OE  (Output Enable; Active low)
 +        A2  | 8     21 | A10
 +        A1  | 9     20 | CE  (Chip Enable; Active low)
 +        A0  | 10    19 | D7
 +        D0  | 11    18 | D6
 +        D1  | 12    17 | D5
 +        D2  | 13    16 | D4
 +        GND | 14    15 | D3
 +            |__________|
 + See the notes below for some tips on using this as a replacement memory
 + chip, on a modified cartridge body, for experimentation purposes. Note
 + that there are differences between it and the standard Vic20 chip below,
 + that will have to be accounted for before it can be wired to the boards.
 + ​However,​ a rare few Commodore-made carts came wired from the factory to
 + use standard 2764 EPROM chips ... if you can find one, it would be easier
 + to experiment with. (And I do mean rare; I have only seen two, myself!)
 + These special carts are in brown plastic cases, with metal labels that
 + have no name printed on them. Instead, there is a metallic sticker stuck
 + on it, with the name of the cartridge. Apparently, limited edition carts.
 + Also, a few later HES carts I've seen also came with EPROMs and sockets.
 + But be careful, as various early carts sometimes used 2 banks of 4k each!
 +@(A)diag3: Pinout diagram #4: "MPS 2364" ROM chip
 +           ​(Commodore-standard,​ 24-pin ROM chip, 8K x 8 bit.)
 +            ​
 +            ____    ____
 +            |   ​!__! ​  |
 +       ​CA7 ​ | 1     24 | +5 Volts
 +       ​CA6 ​ | 2     23 | CA8
 +       ​CA5 ​ | 3     22 | CA9
 +       ​CA4 ​ | 4     21 | CA12
 +       ​CA3 ​ | 5     20 | CS (Chip select, active low)
 +       ​CA2 ​ | 6     19 | CA10
 +       ​CA1 ​ | 7     18 | CA11
 +       ​CA0 ​ | 8     17 | CD7
 +       ​CD0 ​ | 9     16 | CD6
 +       ​CD1 ​ | 10    15 | CD5
 +       ​CD2 ​ | 11    14 | CD4
 +       ​GND ​ | 12    13 | CD3
 +            |__________|
 +This pinout was derived from a Vic20 schematic, found in the book the
 +"Vic20 Programmer'​s Reference Guide"​. (Great book!) Please note that while
 +this is an 8k-by-8-bit Commodore memory chip (its actually the Kernal chip,
 +located at $E000-$FFFF),​ and that while it could normally be assumed safely
 +that a company would standardize and use the same chips in their cartridges
 +that they used in their computer'​s motherboards,​ this is Commodore we're
 +talking about. A bit of paranoia might be in order. Having said that, I'll
 +note that as of this writing, the author has not compared this diagram and
 +an actual memory chip from a Commodore-produced Vic20 cartridge. 'Nuff said!
 +Information for the diagrams above was taken from the Vic20 reference book 
 +"The Vic Revealed"​ by Nick Hampshire, 1982, Hayden Book Co, Inc. That info 
 +was verified by checking it against information found in the "​Vic20 ​
 +Programmer'​s Reference Guide,"​ 1982, by Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 
 +and Howard W. Sams & Company, Inc. Other references were checked as noted.
 +@(A)notes: Assorted notes on the diagrams above, and some related subjects.
 +You are looking at the cart pinout as if you were holding an unopened
 +cartridge, label-side up (or right, in these diagrams) with the gold fingers ​
 +pointing at you. If you are looking at a bare circuit board once it has been 
 +taken out of its outer plastic case, the chip is on top (or right, as shown 
 +here) again with the gold fingers facing you. (The diagrams were drawn 
 +sideways, as the ASCII drawings are somewhat clearer this way, believe it or 
 +not. There is less confusion this way over which pin is which. Horizontally, ​
 +each name takes up more space.)
 +A perhaps useful experimenter'​s tip: If you plan to take the circuit board 
 +out of the cartridge case, then remove the ROM chip(s) from the circuit board, ​
 +mark the two sides of the board first, or you may no longer be able to tell 
 +which is the top, and which is the bottom! This is especially true if one is 
 +removing chips to install sockets. (Any magic marker will do; just write 
 +"​Bottom"​ on the "green stuff"​. Do not write on any exposed metal surfaces.
 +For experimenting purposes, it might be handy to find a cartridge you no 
 +longer care about, desolder the existing ROM chip from the circuit board 
 +inside the cartridge and install an IC socket to make it easier to change ​
 +chips, later. However, note two things about this. One, the socket makes the 
 +whole thing taller, and it may no longer fit into a standard case. You can 
 +either (carefully!) use the new circuit board without using its outer case, 
 +at least for in-house testing, or you may be able to cut a "​window"​ in the 
 +top of the case to clear it all. Second, some cartridges don't use standard ​
 +IC ROM's, so try another cartridge, until you find one that does use a 
 +standard DIP package. (Some carts are more "​rare"​ than others; try to use a
 +cartridge that isn't super-rare, when cutting and hacking them up, please!)
 +On all the Vic20 carts the author has opened and seen so far, the ROM chip 
 +inside has 24-pins. Standard replacement EPROM'​s have 28-pins. This creates ​
 +problems, but not insurmountable ones. It is a bit of a nuisance, but the 
 +dedicated experimenter can modify a 24-pin circuit board, to accept any 28-
 +pin standard EPROM, such as the 2764 package. If one did not want the hassle ​
 +of doing this, one other method exists to be able to put your own 8K eprom 
 +chips inside; however, it is not cheap. Motorola makes an 8K EPROM that is 
 +completely compatible with Commodore'​s "​standard"​ 24-pin ROM chips. It even 
 +works as a direct pin-for-pin replacement for the 8K Kernal and Basic ROM'​s ​
 +inside your Vic20 or C64; the author has replaced both types in the past.
 +The part number for this EPROM is MCM 68764. It was about $18.00 each. (Yes, 
 +it is programmable via the C64's "​Promenade"​ eprom burner too!) I think I got 
 +my 68764 years ago, from Jameco Electronics;​ try them. A 2764 adapter circuit ​
 +board can be made to adapt the differences in 24-to-28 pin sockets, but it 
 +will likely be too tall to fit inside. This Motorola chip may be somewhat hard
 +to find; I've been told it is no longer being made. (Try the I'net, for one.)
 +The memory area located at $A000-BFFF ("​Block 5") is normally considered to 
 +be a ROM-only block of memory. RAM can be mapped into that space if you 
 +modify the cartridge'​s internal switches/​jumpers,​ to redirect a standard RAM 
 +cartridge to load higher up in memory. However, BASIC cannot normally access ​
 +that area, as it is meant to be for ROM's only. This is important, if one 
 +wishes to archive an 8K autostart ROM cartridge (normally located in block 5)
 +and run the resulting ROM image from within RAM. It can be done, but you have 
 +to modify a standard 8K RAM cartridge to do it. (Ground "BLK 5", and cut any 
 +trace or jumper that tells the cart to load into a different area.)
 +Note also that some carts may be copy-protected,​ and will not run in RAM 
 +without modification or "​training,"​ to alter the copy protection. Some carts
 +that have copy protection coded into them, try to overwrite themselves. Some
 +carts apparently use a more sophisticated timing-based approach; they know if
 +you have just turned the machine on, or if you've been loading an image up. A
 +few carts use very subtle methods to protect themselves from being archived.
 +Trying to relocate a machine language program from the memory area where it 
 +was written, and intended to be, and to have it actually work afterwards, is 
 +not advised. It will not work! At least, not without doing so many difficult
 +modifications to the machine language object code that you may as well just 
 +start over and reprogram it all from scratch. For most people, don't bother ​
 +trying. To me, the idea is to get the real actual code as written, anyway.
 +Similar problems confront the user who wishes to archive a tape or a diskette-
 +based original. Trying to make a cartridge out of it, isn't worth the huge 
 +headaches. You are better off, in this case, trying to archive tape-based ​
 +programs to floppy disk (which will still require a little modification,​ but 
 +not as much), and floppies to floppies. But if you can do it, more power...
 +And last but not least: on all the NTSC Vic20 motherboards I looked at (4 or 
 +5), the BASIC memory chip is labeled "​UE11",​ while the Kernal chip is labeled ​
 +as "​UE12"​. My PAL schematic lists these two as UD5 and UD6, respectively. The 
 +Basic memory map area is at $C000-DFFF. Kernal is at $E000-FFFF. The only 
 +other 24-pin chip is the Character Generator; its 4K, not 8K.
 +@(#)next: The Next Hack
 +  ​
 +Hey!  We just filled your life with hundreds of kilobytes of reading material
 +and you have the nerve to stop at this section and inquire what is going to be
 +included in the next issue. ​ I just don;t kow what is getting into you folks
 +nawadays. ​ Back when I was young.... ​ (Well, we just were happy with this
 +I suppose if you must know, we'll note some of the juicy parts of C=H #16,
 +just to see you squirm in anticipation:​
 +o  3 Dimensional Graphics is a hot topic in the next issue, with Steve Judd
 +   ​finishing up his series on 3D graphics routines with a library of function
 +   calls to implement 3D graphics.
 +o  Pasi Ojala graces your eyes with some inspiration on data compression,​ with
 +   help for those who have to fit their 6kB code into 4 kB for the next Driven
 +   4k Compo.
 +o  We'll show you how to do a culture transplant on your PAL VIC-20 and get it
 +   to talk NTSC.
 +o  OK, readers, line up single file as we discuss making starfields for your
 +   next great project.
 +Now, go collect all the items in Jim Brain'​s CBM Products List.  Call us when
 +you have them all.
 +@(#)code: Hacking the Code
 +Being a technical, developer oriented magazine, some articles featured
 +in C=H include executables or other binary files as part of the article. ​
 +All such binary files are included on the soft copy of this issue in this
 +section. ​ In an effort to retain the integrity of such binary files through
 +distribution over various computer networks, the binaries in this section ​
 +have been encoded using the UUcode format, a popular Internet ​
 +binary-to-readable text encoding method. In order to execute or otherwise
 +utilize these binary files, one must feed this section of the magazine
 +to a UUdecoding application. ​ Typical examples include UUXFER for the 64,
 +uudecode on the ACE OS for the 64 and 128, and uudecode on most UNIX OS 
 +machines. ​ Some encoders can decode multiple files, while others will
 +require the user to manually split this section into individual pieces
 +prior to decoding.
 +In addition to this section, there are other ways to retrieve the
 +binary files featured in this issue. ​ For those with World Wide Web
 +access, the files are available on the Commodore Hacking Web Site at
 +http://​​chacking/​ as well as on our ftp site at
 +For those with electronic mail access only, the Commodore Hacking
 +MAILSERV server also contains a copy of these files. ​ To retrieve a 
 +copy of "​dim4.lnx",​ send the following email message:
 +Subject: FTPMAIL
 +Body of Message:
 +cd /​pub/​cbm/​mags/​c=hacking/​14/​
 +send dim4.lnx
 +For some articles published in Commodore, the author or authors may also
 +have other methods for accessing files mentioned in the article. ​ These
 +methods are described in the respective article.
 +Commodore Hacking always attempts to provide the reader with as many
 +options as possible to retrieve uncorrupted binary files. ​ Although none
 +of these above methods is foolproof, the added redundancy helps overcome
 +any shortcomings.
 +WARNING: ​ The UUCode format translates files from binary to ASCII, not
 +PETSCII. ​ Therefore, either decode this section before downloading this
 +section to a PETSCII mode computer system, or download this section without
 +translation to PETSCII. ​ Some decoder programs can handle PETSCII converted
 +UUCode files, but the practice is not recommended because conversion is
 +typically done in a telecommunications program and accuracy in
 +translation cannot be guaranteed.
 +@(A)dpschematic:​ Schematic for DataPump Plus
 +The following GIF file details the schematic of the DataPump Plus cartridge.
 +This graphics format can be viewed on the 64 with a tool like GEOGif or
 +begin 644 dp.gif