This list of tools is meant to serve as a quick reference for newcomers and oldschoolers who returned to the scene and are wondering what the current state of tools is and what most people use. It's not meant to be a comprehensive or complete list, so don't add more than a handful essential and notable tools to each category. Also please don't link directly to binaries in cases where a proper homepage for a tool is available.
For a more comprehensive list of links to tools, check the links section instead.
More assemblers are listed at the assemblers section on the links page, and it should be made clear that some people prefer other assemblers than those listed here.